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Table 2 Risk factors for extubation complications

From: Clinical review: Post-extubation laryngeal edema and extubation failure in critically ill adult patients

Outcome measure Study Year Risk factors
Laryngeal injury Colice and colleagues [2] 1989 Persistent laryngeal neuromotor activity, tracheostomy
  Kastanos and colleagues [17] 1983 Severe respiratory failure, high cuff pressure, duration of endotracheal intubation, secretion infection
  Esteller and colleagues [19] 2005 Longer duration of intubation, tracheostomy, number of days in the intensive care unit
Laryngeal edema Darmon and colleagues [4] 1992 Duration of intubation (>36 hours), gender (female)
  Francois and colleagues [6] 2007 Trauma at admission, gender (female), short duration of intubation (<7 days), smaller height to tube diameter ratio, absence of methylprednisolone pre treatment
Post-extubation stridor Cheng and colleagues [3] 2006 Gender (female), lower Glasgow coma score, nonsedation treatment
  Sandhu and colleagues [26] 2000 Duration of intubation (>3 days)
  Daley and colleagues [9] 1996 Tracheostomy, time to reintubation
  Ho and colleagues [7] 1996 Gender (female)
  Jaber and colleagues [30] 2003 High SAPS II, medical patients, difficult intubation, history of self-extubation, prolonged intubation, high cuff pressure
  Kriner and colleagues [8] 2005 Gender (female), duration of intubation (>6 days), ratio tube size to laryngeal size >45%
  Wang and colleagues [14] 2007 Gender (female)
  Maury and colleagues [25] 2004 Gender (female)
  Erginel and colleagues [15] 2005 Duration of ventilation (>5 days), body mass index (>26.5)
Reintubation Daley and colleagues [9] 1996 Tracheostomy, post-extubation stridor
  Jaber and colleagues [30] 2003 Post-extubation stridor
  Epstein and colleagues [1] 1997 APACHE II score, age, cardiopulmonary cause for reintubation
  Sandhu and colleagues [26] 2000 Duration of previous intubation (>3 days)
  1. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; SAPS, Simplified Acute Physiology Score.