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Table 2 Medications that can cause delirium and their effects on sleep

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Delirium in ICU patients - importance of sleep deprivation

Medication Effect
   Opioids Decreased REM, decreased SWS
   Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents Decreased total sleep time, decreased sleep efficiency
   Isoflurane Decreased SWS
   Diphenhydramine Decreased sleep latency, decreased REM
   Benztropine Decreased REM
   Phenytoin Sleep fragmentation, increased SWS
   Carbamazepine Decreased REM, increased SWS
   Valproic acid Decreased nocturnal melatonin blood levels
Anti-Parkinson's agents  
   Levodopa At high doses, hallucinations, nightmares
   Amantadine Confusion, hallucinations
Cardiac drugs  
   β-Blockers Decreased total sleep time, REM, SWS (lipophilic > nonlipophilic)
   Clonidine Decreased REM
   Digitalis Insomnia, nightmares
   Methyldopa Decreased SWS, increased REM, nightmares
Corticosteroids Decreased REM, decreased SWS
Psychiatric drugs  
   Tricyclic antidepressants Decreased REM
   Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Decreased REM, decreased total sleep time
   Benzodiazepines Decreased REM, decreased SWS
  1. REM, rapid eye movement; SWS, slow-wave sleep (stage III/IV).