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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with normal serum sodium on day one in the intensive care unit (ICU)*

From: The epidemiology of intensive care unit-acquired hyponatraemia and hypernatraemia in medical-surgical intensive care units

  Serum Sodium Category
Characteristics Acquire hyponatraemia
(n = 917)
Always normal
(n = 5068)
Acquire hypernatraemia
(n = 2157)
Demographic    
Age, mean, years 57 (19) 56 (20) 60 (18)
Female, number (%) 397 (43) 2060 (41) 866 (40)
Hospital    
Admission location, number (%)    
   Emergency department 337 (37) 1926 (38) 833 (39)
   Operating room 243 (27) 1450 (29) 509 (24)
   Hospital floor 217 (24) 1049 (21) 534 (25)
   Transfer from another facility 118 (13) 632 (13) 280 (13)
Admission ICU, number (%)    
   Trauma and neurosurgery referral ICU 534 (58) 2568 (51) 1127 (52)
   Vascular surgery referral ICU 214 (23) 1388 (27) 595 (28)
   General medical-surgical ICU 169 (18) 1112 (22) 435 (20)
Weekend admission, number (%) 265 (29) 1294 (26) 599 (28)
Night admission, number (%) 536 (58) 2787 (55) 1267 (59)
Clinical    
Admitting diagnosis category, number (%)    
   Neurological/trauma 256 (28) 1279 (25) 607 (28)
   Surgical 255 (28) 1570 (31) 570 (26)
   Medical 404 (44) 2191 (43) 979 (45)
Vasoactive medication first 24 hours, number (%) 318 (35) 936 (19) 820 (38)
Mechanical ventilation first 24 hours, number (%) 619 (67) 3277 (65) 1629 (75)
Temperature, °C 37.0 (1.5) 37.0 (1.3) 36.8 (1.6)
Glasgow Coma Scale score 9.2 (4.4) 9.6 (4.3) 8.1 (4.3)
Serum sodium, mmol/L 137 (3) 139 (3) 140 (3)
Serum potassium, mmol/L 4.0 (0.9) 3.9 (0.7) 4.0 (0.9)
Serum glucose, mmol/L 9.2 (4.0) 8.9 (3.7) 10.0 (4.9)
Serum creatinine, median (IQR) μmol/L 78 (56 to 133) 76 (59 to 104) 90 (64 to 143)
APACHE II Score 19.8 (7.9) 16.9 (7.5) 21.8 (7.7)
TISS score 39.1 (13.2) 32.3 (11.9) 40.8 (12.5)
Level of care, number (%)    
   Full care 887 (97) 4799 (95) 2018 (94)
   Full care, but no CPR 30 (3) 258 (5) 135 (6)
   Comfort care 0 (0) 11(0) 4 (0)
  1. *Results reported as mean (standard deviation) unless indicated.
  2. †Physiological and laboratory data represent the most abnormal values recorded during the first day in ICU.
  3. APACHE = Acute Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, CPR = cardiopulmonary resuscitation, IQR = interquartile range, TISS = Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System.