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Table 1 Summary of the studies on the influence of noise upon intensive care unit patients' sleep

From: Clinical review: The impact of noise on patients' sleep and the effectiveness of noise reduction strategies in intensive care units

Author and year published Method Number of patients Mean age of patients ICU type Duration of ICU stay (days) Main noise sources Number ventilated Is noise the most significant cause of sleep disruption?
Hilton, 1976 [24] Polysomnography + continuous researcher observation over 24 h + patient interview/recall 10 34–81 1 respiratory ICU in Canada Not stated Staff communication; environment (phone, tap, chair, side rails, bottles, metal) Not stated Yes
Jones et al., 1979 [17] Questionnaire 100 Not stated 1 ICU in UK 1.65 Noise from staff, equipment, and other Patients 22/100 No
Aaron et al., 1996 [25] Polysomnography + noise monitoring over 24 h 6 66.8 ± 2.8 1 intermediate respiratory care unit in USA Not stated Not stated Not stated Yes
Cureton-Lane and Fontaine, 1997 [26] Researcher observation + noise monitoring less than 24 h 9 4.7 ± 3.51 1 pediatric ICU in USA 2.3 Not stated Not stated Yes
Freedman et al., 1999 [18] Questionnaire 203 58.6 ± 15.4 1 cardiac care unit, 1 cardiac intermediate, 1 medical, and 1 surgical in USA 8.6 ± 17.5 Talking and telemetry alarms 32/203 No
Freedman et al., 2001 [20] Polysomnography + noise measurement over 24 h 22 61 ± 16 1 medical ICU and1 ICU in USA 18 ± 20 Not stated 20/22 No
Frisk and Nordstrom, 2003 [21] RCSQ 31 59 1 ICU in Sweden 2.86 Noise from fellow patients Not stated No
Gabor et al., 2003 [22] Polysomnography + noise measurement over 24 h 7 patients + 6 healthy subjects 56.7 ± 19.2 Patients in CCU; healthy subject in medical/surgical ICU, in Canada 48.3 ± 40.2 Talking, alarm All No
Ugras and Oztekin, 2007 [23] Questionnaire 88 46.57 1 neurosurgery ICU in Turkey 2.83 Alarm Not stated No
Richardson et al., 2007 [27] Controlled clinical trial + questionnaire 64 Not stated 1 CCU in UK >1 Staff talking, telephone, alarms Not stated Yes
Hweidi, 2007 [28] Questionnaire 165 53.38 ± 9.76 3 ICU in Jordan Not stated Not stated Not stated Yes
  1. CCU, critical care unit; ICU, intensive care unit; RCSQ, Richard Campell sleep questionnaire.