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Table 2 Admission and outcome parameters of study patients

From: Gastrointestinal Failure score in critically ill patients: a prospective observational study

Admission parameters   IAH FI
  Total Absent Present P Absent Present P
Number of patients (%) 264 ± 100.0 192 ± 72.3 72 ± 27.3   110 ± 41.7 154 ± 58.3  
Male sex (n [%]) 166 ± 62.9 117 ± 60.9 49 ± 68.1 0.178 60 ± 54.5 106 ± 68.8 0.013
Age (years) 53.8 ± 20.0 52.3 ± 21.0 57.8 ± 16.8 0.047 48.6 ± 21.0 57.5 ± 18.5 <0.001
Diabetes (n [%]) 35 ± 13.3 26 ± 13.5 9 ± 12.5 0.502 11 ± 10.0 24 ± 15.6 0.128
Readmission (n [%]) 8 ± 3.0 6 ± 3.1 2 ± 2.8 0.622 2 ± 1.8 6 ± 3.9 0.287
Sedation (n [%]) 243 ± 92.0 174 ± 90.6 69 ± 95.8 0.125 98 ± 89.1 145 ± 94.2 0.103
Vasoactive/inotrope (n [%]) 200 ± 75.8 136 ± 70.8 64 ± 88.9 0.001 67 ± 60.9 133 ± 86.4 <0.001
Surgical profile (n [%]) 175 ± 66.3 122 ± 63.5 53 ± 73.7 0.080 67 ± 60.9 108 ± 70.1 0.077
Laparatomy (n [%]) 60 ± 23.3 21 ± 15.6 31 ± 43.7 <0.001 9 ± 8.4 51 ± 34.0 <0.001
Enteral feeding (n [%]) 49 ± 18.6 42 ± 21.9 7 ± 9.7 0.015 25 ± 22.7 24 ± 15.6 0.095
APACHE II score (points) 14.2 ± 7.7 13.5 ± 7.6 16.0 ± 7.7 0.016 11.8 ± 7.3 15.8 ± 7.6 <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 27.6 ± 13.1 25.4 ± 4.6 33.1 ± 22.2 <0.001 25.8 ± 5.6 28.9 ± 16.4 0.080
SOFA score (points) 7.0 ± 4.2 6.3 ± 4.2 8.9 ± 3.6 <0.001 5.3 ± 4.2 8.2 ± 3.8 <0.001
Fluid gain in first 24 hours (l) 2.4 ± 3.6 2.0 ± 2.4 3.6 ± 5.5 0.001 1.7 ± 2.4 2.9 ± 4.2 0.007
MAP (mmHg) 81.5 ± 15.9 82.1 ± 16.4 80.5 ± 15.0 0.512 82.1 ± 15.8 81.3 ± 16.1 0.758
IAP (mmHg) 8.5 ± 4.7 6.5 ± 3.8 12.1 ± 4.0 <0.001 6.3 ± 4.0 9.5 ± 4.6 <0.001
CVP (mmHg) 11.6 ± 5.7 10.3 ± 4.9 14.3 ± 6.3 <0.001 10.4 ± 5.1 12.2 ± 5.9 0.031
PIP (cmH2O) 23.9 ± 6.2 22.6 ± 6.0 27.2 ± 5.2 <0.001 22.5 ± 6.5 24.8 ± 5.7 0.006
PEEP (cmH2O) 9.2 ± 4.2 8.5 ± 4.1 11.2 ± 3.7 <0.001 7.8 ± 4.1 10.2 ± 3.9 <0.001
Lactate (mmol/l) 4.6 ± 5.4 4.4 ± 4.6 4.9 ± 6.9 0.519 4.4 ± 4.9 4.7 ± 5.7 0.741
FI (n [%]) 124 ± 47.0 69 ± 35.9 55 ± 76.4 <0.001 - -  
IAH (n [%]) 42 ± 15.9 - -   3 ± 2.7 39 ± 25.3 <0.001
Gastrointestinal failure (FI+IAH; n [%]) 36 ± 13.6 - 36 ± 50.0   - 36 ± 23.4  
Outcome parameters        
   MV (days) 7.4 ± 11.9 4.3 ± 6.1 15.5 ± 18.0 <0.001 3.6 ± 5.9 10.0 ± 14.1 <0.001
   ICU (days) 8.8 ± 12.8 5.6 ± 7.3 17.5 ± 19.0 <0.001 4.8 ± 6.9 11.7 ± 15.1 <0.001
   ICU mortality (n [%]) 39 ± 14.8 21 ± 10.9 18 ± 25.0 0.005 7 ± 6.4 32 ± 20.8 0.001
   28-day mortality (n [%]) 54 ± 20.5% 36 ± 18.8% 18 ± 25.0% 0.171 13 ± 11.8% 41 ± 26.6% <0.001
   90-day mortality (n [%]) 75 ± 28.4% 48 ± 25.0% 27 ± 37.5% 0.033 17 ± 15.5% 58 ± 37.7% 0.002
  1. The values are presented as mean ± standard deviation. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; BMI, body mass index; CVP, central venous pressure; FI, food intolerance; IAH, intra-abdominal hypertension; IAP, intra-abdominal pressure; ICU, intensive care unit; MAP, mean arterial pressure; MV, mechanical ventilation; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressure; PIP, peak inspiratory pressure; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment.