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Table 7 Studies evaluating the value of biomarkers in diagnosing VAP

From: Diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review of the literature

First author Sample Dx Tests Gold standard Results
Povoa, 2005, # [73] Mixed ICU, 112 pts CRP Johanson CRP (>9.6 mg/dl): sens = 87%, spec = 88%, AUC = 0.92.
Gibot, 2004, ** [75] Mixed ICU, 148 pts sTREM-1 in mini-BAL Mini-BAL (103) Clinical (ad hoc) Sens = 98%, spec = 90%.
Duflo, 2002, ** [71] Mixed ICU, 96 pts PCT serum & alveolar Mini-BAL (103) Serum PCT (≥3.9 ng/ml): sens = 41%, spec = 100%, AUC = 0787.
Alveolar PCT: not useful.
Oppert, 2002, ** [72] Mixed ICU, 28 pts PCT and PCR Clinical (ad hoc) Serum PCT (>1 ng/ml): sens = 100%, spec = 75%.
El-Ebiary, 1995, *, ** [69] Mixed ICU, 78 pts Elastin fibre Clinical (ad hoc) EF: sens = 32%, spec = 72%.
Determann, 2005, ** [76] Mixed ICU, 28 pts sTREM-1 Clinical & NBLF Sens = 75%, spec = 84%.
Pugin, 1992, ** [78] Trauma ICU, 40 pts BAL Endotoxin Clinical & BAL BAL endotoxin > 6 EU/ml suggests pneumonia due to Gram-negative bacteria.
Flanagan, 2001, ** [77] Mixed ICU, 64 pts BAL Endotoxin Clinical & BAL Sens = 81%, spec = 87%, PPV = 67%, NPV = 95%.
  1. AUC: area under the curve; ICU = intensive care unit; CRP = C-reactive protein; sens = sensitivity; spec = specificity; sTREM-1 = soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells; BAL = bronchoalveolar lavage; PCT = procalcitonin; EF = elastin fiber; NBLF = non-directed bronchial lavage fluids; EU = endotoxin units; *retrospective; **consecutive; #convenient.