Skip to main content

Table 3 Complications

From: Early treatment of imported falciparum malaria in the intermediate and intensive care unit setting: an 8-year single-center retrospective study



Number of patients (%)

Unrousable coma

Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤9; exclude other causes; should persist ≥30 minutes after a generalized convulsion

3 (2,5)

Impaired consciousness

Mental clouding, rousable

11 (9)

Multiple seizures

Three or more convulsions observed within 24 hours

0 (0)

Respiratory distress

Acidotic breathing, pulmonary oedema, or acute respiratory distress syndrome, on the basis of radiographic densities, hypoxaemia, and positive end-expiratory pressure

4 (3.3)

Circulatory collapse or shock

Systolic blood pressure <80 mmHg despite adequate volume repletion

5 (4.1)

Abnormal bleeding

Spontaneous bleeding from gums, nose, gastrointestinal tract, or laboratory evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation

4 (3.3)


Icteric sclera/buccal mucosa, or serum bilirubin >50 μmol/l (>3 mg/dl)

17 (13.9)

Severe anaemia

Heemoglobin concentration <5 g/l, or haematocrit <15%

0 (0)


Whole blood glucose concentration <2.2 mmol/l (<40 mg/dl)

3 (2.5)

Renal failure

Serum creatinine >265 μmol/l, oliguria (<400 ml/24 hours) despite adequate rehydration

5 (4.1)


More than 5% parasitized erythrocytes or >250,000 parasites/μl (in nonimmune individuals)

13 (10.7)


Plasma bicarbonate <15 mmol/l or base excess under -10, or acidaemia (arteria/capillaryl pH <7.25)

4 (3.3)

Macroscopic haemoglobinuria

Dark or red urine; exclude haematuria, haemolysis not secondary to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency


  1. The complications are defined according to the World Health Organization classification system [20] (n = 34 patients). ND, not determined