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Table 1 Pulmonary–renal syndromes

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Pulmonary–renal syndromes – an update for the intensivist

Clinical entities classified according to the pathogenetic mechanism involved
Pulmonary–renal syndrome associated with anti-GBM antibodies: Goodpasture's syndrome
Pulmonary–renal syndrome in ANCA-positive systemic vasculitis
   Wegener's granulomatosis
   Microscopic polyangiitis
   Churg–Strauss syndrome
   Other vasculitis
Pulmonary–renal syndrome in ANCA-negative systemic vasculitis
   Henoch–Schönlein purpura
   Mixed cryoglobulinaemia
   Behçet's disease
   IgA nephropathy
ANCA-positive Pulmonary–renal syndrome without systemic vasculitis: idiopathic Pulmonary–renal syndrome
   Pauci-immune necrotic glomerulonephritis and pulmonary capillaritis
Pulmonary–renal syndrome in drug-associated ANCA-positive vasculitis
Pulmonary–renal syndrome in anti-GBM-postive and ANCA-positive patients
Pulmonary–renal syndrome in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (immune complexes and/or ANCA mediated)
   Systemic lupus erythematosus
   Scleroderma (ANCA?)
   Rheumatoid arthritis
   Mixed collagen vascular disease
Pulmonary–renal syndrome in thrombotic microangiopathy
   Antiphospholipid syndrome
   Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage complicating idiopathic pauci-immune glomerulonephritis
  1. anti-GBM, antiglomerular basement membrane; ANCA, antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies.