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Table 1 Pulmonary–renal syndromes

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Pulmonary–renal syndromes – an update for the intensivist

Clinical entities classified according to the pathogenetic mechanism involved
Pulmonary–renal syndrome associated with anti-GBM antibodies: Goodpasture's syndrome
Pulmonary–renal syndrome in ANCA-positive systemic vasculitis
   Wegener's granulomatosis
   Microscopic polyangiitis
   Churg–Strauss syndrome
   Other vasculitis
Pulmonary–renal syndrome in ANCA-negative systemic vasculitis
   Henoch–Schönlein purpura
   Mixed cryoglobulinaemia
   Behçet's disease
   IgA nephropathy
ANCA-positive Pulmonary–renal syndrome without systemic vasculitis: idiopathic Pulmonary–renal syndrome
   Pauci-immune necrotic glomerulonephritis and pulmonary capillaritis
Pulmonary–renal syndrome in drug-associated ANCA-positive vasculitis
   Propylthiouracil
   D-Penicillamine
   Hydralazine
   Allopurinol
   Sulfasalazine
Pulmonary–renal syndrome in anti-GBM-postive and ANCA-positive patients
Pulmonary–renal syndrome in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (immune complexes and/or ANCA mediated)
   Systemic lupus erythematosus
   Scleroderma (ANCA?)
   Polymyositis
   Rheumatoid arthritis
   Mixed collagen vascular disease
Pulmonary–renal syndrome in thrombotic microangiopathy
   Antiphospholipid syndrome
   Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
   Infections
   Neoplasms
Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage complicating idiopathic pauci-immune glomerulonephritis
  1. anti-GBM, antiglomerular basement membrane; ANCA, antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies.