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Table 1 Pulmonary–renal syndromes

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Pulmonary–renal syndromes – an update for the intensivist

Clinical entities classified according to the pathogenetic mechanism involved

Pulmonary–renal syndrome associated with anti-GBM antibodies: Goodpasture's syndrome

Pulmonary–renal syndrome in ANCA-positive systemic vasculitis

   Wegener's granulomatosis

   Microscopic polyangiitis

   Churg–Strauss syndrome

   Other vasculitis

Pulmonary–renal syndrome in ANCA-negative systemic vasculitis

   Henoch–Schönlein purpura

   Mixed cryoglobulinaemia

   Behçet's disease

   IgA nephropathy

ANCA-positive Pulmonary–renal syndrome without systemic vasculitis: idiopathic Pulmonary–renal syndrome

   Pauci-immune necrotic glomerulonephritis and pulmonary capillaritis

Pulmonary–renal syndrome in drug-associated ANCA-positive vasculitis






Pulmonary–renal syndrome in anti-GBM-postive and ANCA-positive patients

Pulmonary–renal syndrome in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (immune complexes and/or ANCA mediated)

   Systemic lupus erythematosus

   Scleroderma (ANCA?)


   Rheumatoid arthritis

   Mixed collagen vascular disease

Pulmonary–renal syndrome in thrombotic microangiopathy

   Antiphospholipid syndrome

   Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura



Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage complicating idiopathic pauci-immune glomerulonephritis

  1. anti-GBM, antiglomerular basement membrane; ANCA, antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies.