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Table 1 Causes of acute renal failure in cancer patients

From: Clinical review: Specific aspects of acute renal failure in cancer patients

Pre-renal failure Sepsis
  Extracellular dehydration (diarrhoea, mucitis, vomiting)
  Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (formerly called hepatic veno-occlusive disease)
  Drugs (e.g., calcineurin inhibitors, ACE inhibitors, NSAIDs)
  Capillary-leak syndrome (IL2)
Intrinsic failure  
   Acute tubular necrosis Ischaemia (shock, severe sepsis)
  Nephrotoxic agents (contrast agents, aminoglycosides, amphotericin, ifosfamide, cisplatin)
  Disseminated intravascular coagulation
  Intravascular haemolysis
   Acute interstitial nephritis Immuno-allergic nephritis
  Pyelonephritis
  Cancer infiltration (e.g., lymphoma, metastasis)
  Nephrocalcinosis
   Vascular nephritis Thrombotic microangiopathy
  Vascular obstruction
   Glomerulonephritis Amyloidosis (AL, myeloma; AA, renal carcinoma or Hodgkin's disease)
  Immunotactoid glomerulopathy
  Membranous glomerulonephritis (pulmonary, breast or gastric carcinoma)
  IgA glomerulonephritis, focal glomerulosclerosis
Post-renal failure Intra-renal obstruction (e.g., urate crystals, light chain, acyclovir, methotrexate)
  Extrarenal obstruction (retroperitonal fibrosis, ureteral or bladder outlet obstruction)
  1. ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.