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Table 1 Demographic and clinical variables

From: Predicting late anemia in critical illness

Variable All patients Late transfusion No late transfusion Late anemia No late anemia
Subjects (n) 5,170 887 4,283 1,034 4,136
Age, years (mean ± SD; median) 60.5 ± 17.4; 62.5 60.9 ± 17.4; 62.2 60.4 ± 17.4; 62.6 60.1 ± 17.2; 61.5 60.6 ± 17.5; 62.8
Age 65 years or more (%) 47.1 46.1 47.3 44.3* 47.8
Race (%)      
   White 85.3 85.3 85.2 85.6 85.2
   Black 8.4 8.3 8.5 8.8 8.3
   Others and unknown 6.3 6.3 6.3 5.6 6.5
Gender (percentage females) 43.6 44.5 43.5 44.6 43.4
Co-morbiditya (%) 51.5 57.7c 50.3 57.3c 50.1
   Diabetes 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.2 17.5
   Pulmonary disease 9.8 12.3c 9.3 10.7 9.6
   Renal disease 0.2 0.8c 0.1 0.4 0.2
   Liver disease 7.3 14.3c 5.9 13.8c 5.7
   Peripheral vascular disease 5.0 6.5c 4.6 4.7 5.0
   Cerebrovascular disease 1.8 1.8 1.8 2.1 1.7
   Myocardial infarction 7.2 4.5c 7.7 5.7c 7.5
BMI (mean ± SD; median) 27.7 ± 7.4; 26.5 27.0c ± 7.3; 25.7 27.9 ± 7.4; 26.6 27.3c ± 7.1; 25.9 27.9 ± 7.4; 26.6
Medical (%) 41.2 21.1c 45.4 19.2c 46.7
Emergency surgery (%) 17.4 15.1c 17.9 17.4 17.4
Trauma case (%) 12.0 13.5 11.7 14.9c 11.2
Admission diagnosisb (%)      
   Medical      
Cardiovascular 3.9 3.6 3.9 3.6 3.9
Respiratory 7.1 7.8 6.9 5.5c 7.5
Gastrointestinal 5.5 6.4 5.3 7.5c 5.0
Neurologic 7.8 6.5 8.1 4.8c 8.6
Sepsis 2.4 4.5c 2.0 3.5c 2.2
Nonoperative trauma 4.9 6.1 4.6 5.0 4.9
Metabolic 2.1 0.9c 2.3 0.8c 2.4
Renal 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3
Other medical 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.9
   Surgical      
Cardiovascular 17.8 8.5c 19.8 13.0c 19.1
Respiratory 1.9 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.9
Gastrointestinal 3.7 4.5 3.5 4.6 3.5
Neurologic 3.1 2.6 3.2 3.5 3.0
Operative trauma 2.7 4.1c 2.4 5.4c 2.0
Other surgical 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.6 1.0
   Unknown 34.9 40.4c 33.7 38.2c 34.0
APACHE III score (mean ± SD; median) 48.2 ± 25.1; 44.0 56.4c ± 23.9; 54.0 46.7 ± 25.0; 42.0 54.9c ± 23.6; 51.0 46.7 ± 25.1; 42.0
MV at any time (%) 30.6 56.0c 25.4 50.4c 25.7
ICU LOS, days (mean ± SD; median) 6.3 ± 9.7; 3.0 17.8c ± 16.9; 14.0 3.9 ± 4.7; 2.0 15.5c ± 16.2; 11.0 4.0 ± 5.2; 2.0
Hospital LOS days (mean ± SD; median) 15.0 ± 16.3; 9.0 33.8c ± 24.0; 27.0 11.1 ± 10.7; 8.0 30.0c ± 22.7; 24.0 11.2 ± 11.6; 8.0
Hospital mortality (%) 12.9 20.3c 11.4 13.5 12.7
Physiologic and therapeutic measures within 6 hours of ICU admission      
   Hemoglobin, g/dl (mean ± SD; median) 9.6 ± 4.7; 10.7 9.5 ± 3.6; 10.0 9.6 ± 4.9; 10.9 9.1c ± 3.6; 9.7 9.7 ± 4.9; 11.1
   Lactate more than 1.5 mg/dl (%) 14.7 26.5c 7.7 26.3c 11.8
   Creatinine at least 1.6 mg/dl (%) 15.7 26.0c 13.5 22.7c 13.9
   INR more than 1.9 (%) 5.7 10.1c 4.8 10.0c 4.7
   Inotropes (%) 10.6 17.7c 9.1 17.3c 8.9
   Mechanical ventilation (%) 16.3 23.9c 14.8 22.2c 14.8
   Transfusion (%) 8.3 11.2c 7.7 17.2c 6.1
  1. Late transfusion, transfused 7 days or more after admission to intensive care unit; late anemia, reached or would have reached 7.0 g/dl at 7 days or more after admission to intensive care unit. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; BMI, body mass index; ICU, intensive care unit; LOS, length of stay; MV, mechanical ventilation; INR, international normalized ratio. aAny co-morbidity, as measured in accordance with Charlson–Deyo procedures for the index admission with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) discharge diagnoses. bAdmission diagnosis, which represents the condition most likely to be responsible for ICU admission as reported in the electronic medical record, was not available for 35% of patients. Because of rounding, totals may not equal 100%. cp < 0.05 between patients belonging to group of interest and those who did not belong to this group.