Analytical survey of human rabies prevalence in the province of Kerman, Iran
- M Rezaei Nassab1
© BioMed Central Ltd 2006
Published: 21 March 2006
In order to determine the frequency rates of domestic and wild animal bites as well as the evaluation of the prevalence rates of rabies disease in human population in the province of Kerman, a retrospective study was designed to analyze statistically the collected recorded data related to this project. The required data such as the numbers of persons who were bitten by animals, the distribution of the studied variables such as geographical locations, age groups of people, jobs and professional relationships, pre-exposure prophylaxis treatment for rabies, and topographical conditions of the injured organs of bodies due to the animal bites, as well as the mortality rates of individuals resulting from rabies, were collected during one decade starting from 21 March 1994 to 21 March 2003 in all 10 cities including the rural areas of the province of Kerman. All data were finally analyzed by SPSS software (Version 11.5).
On the basis of recorded statistical analysis, the mortality cases of human rabies in the province of Kerman during one decade was 10 persons (eight males and two females). One-half of them (50%) were bitten by dogs and the others (50%) by foxes. The mean of age of the people who were bitten by dogs was 24.80 years (SD = ± 14.6), while the mean age of the people who were bitten by foxes was 57.25 years (SD = ± 1.50). There was a significant difference between the mean age of these two groups of the people (P < 0.05). The most frequent rate of injured people was reported in the age group of 10–19 years old and the frequency rate of males (76.00%) was more than females (24.00%). There was therefore statistically a significant difference between males and females in this study (P < 0.01).
Among the people who were bitten and injured by animals during one decade in the province of Kerman, 85.70% of them have not been treated by a rabies prophylaxis treatment regimen. Among all of them who were bitten by animals, 50% were injured through the hands and feet, 40% of them through heads and faces, and 10% of them through trunks, cervical regions and other organs of the bodies. In the persons who were bitten by animals in the head region, the mean time of the latency period for rabies was 33 days (SD = ± 12.2 days), while the mean time of the latency period in the persons who were bitten through the hands and feet was 77 days (SD = ± 45.8 days). P < 0.1. The results of this study showed that there is a significant reciprocal correlation between the annual raining level and the frequency rate of animal bites in the province of Kerman (r = 0.5, P < 0.01).
According to this study, the role of foxes in the epidemiological cycle of human rabies in the province of Kerman, located in the south-east of Iran, seems very important.