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Table 1 Clinical caveats for hemodynamic variables

From: Functional hemodynamic monitoring

Type of hemodynamic variable Parameter Comments
Solitary Blood pressure Hypotension is always pathological
  Central venous pressure (CVP) CVP is only elevated in disease
  Pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (Ppao) Ppao is the back-pressure to pulmonary blood flow
  Cardiac output There is no normal cardiac output, only an adequate or inadequate one
  Mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) Decreasing SvO2 is a sensitive but nonspecific marker of cardiovascular stress
Dynamic Volume challenge Positive response defined as an increase in any of blood pressure, CVP, Ppao, cardiac output and/or SvO2, or a decrease in heart rate
  Echocardiographic analysis of vena cavae collapse during positive pressure inspiration identifies CVP <10 mmHg if it detects Complete inferior vena caval collapsea
   >36% collapse in superior vena cavaa
  Defining preload responsiveness ≥13% pulse pressure variation during positive pressure ventilationa
   >1 mmHg decrease in CVP during spontaneous inspirationb
  1. aRequires a fixed tidal volume of 6–8 ml/kg and complete adaptation to the ventilator. bRequires a spontaneous inspiratory effort greater than -2 mmHg to be valid.