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Table 1 Characteristics of included randomized placebo-controlled clinical studies

From: Lack of evidence for qualitative treatment by disease severity interactions in clinical studies of severe sepsis

Study Molecular class Design Primary outcome measure
Opal et al. (2004) [28] Platelet activating factor hydrolase 2 Parallel groups 28-Day all-cause mortality
Abraham et al. (2003) [29] Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 Parallel Groups 28-Day all-cause mortality
Annane et al. (2002) [27] 'Low-dose' hydrocortisone plus fludrocortisone 2 Parallel groups
Subset by 'responder' to cortisyn stimulation test
28-Day all-cause mortality
Warren et al. (2001) [35] Antithrombin III 2 Parallel groups 28-Day all-cause mortality
Bernard et al. (1997) [44] Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ibuprofen) 2 Parallel groups 28-Day all-cause mortality
Fisher et al. (1994) [32] IL-1ra 3 Parallel groups (2 active treatment arms) 28-Day all-cause mortality
Opal et al. (1997) [34] IL-1ra 2 Parallel groups 28-Day all-cause mortality
Greenman et al. (1991) [30] Antiendotoxin antibody (E5) 2 Parallel groups
Subset by Gram-negative infection
28-Day all-cause mortality
Bone et al. (1995) [22] Antiendotoxin antibody (E5) 2 Parallel groups 28-Day all-cause mortality
Angus et al. (2000) [45] Antiendotoxin antibody (E5) 2 Parallel groups 28-Day all-cause mortality
Abraham et al. (2001) [33] p55 TNF receptor fusion protein (lenercept) 2 Parallel groups 28-Day all-cause mortality
Reinhart et al. (2001) [46] Anti-TNF antibody (MAK195F) 2 Parallel groups
IL-6 > 1,000 pg/ml
28-Day all-cause mortality
Cohen and Carlet (1996) [47] Anti-TNF antibody (BAYx1351) 3 Parallel groups 28-Day all-cause mortality
Abraham et al. (1995) [31] Anti-TNF antibody (BAYx1351) 3 Parallel groups 28-Day all-cause mortality
Abraham et al. (1998) [36] Anti-TNF antibody (BAYx1351) 2 Parallel groups 28-Day all-cause mortality
Bernard et al. (2001) [26] Activated protein C 2 Parallel groups 28-Day all-cause mortality
Dhainaut et al. (1998) [48] Platelet activating factor receptor antagonist 2 Parallel groups 28-Day all-cause mortality
Albertson et al. (2003) [49] Anti-Enterobacteriaceae common antigen antibody 2 Parallel groups
Subset by Enterobacteriaceae infection
28-Day all-cause mortality
Lopez et al. (2004) [50] Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 2 Parallel groups 28-Day all-cause mortality
Ziegler et al. (1991) [25] Antiendotoxin antibody (HA-1A) 2 Parallel groups
Subset by Gram-negative bacteremia
28-Day all-cause mortality
Panacek et al. (2004) [37] Anti-TNF antibody (afelimomab) 2 Parallel groups
Subset by IL-6 levels < or ≥ 1,000 pg/ml
28-Day all-cause mortality
Root et al. (2003) [51] Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (filgrastim) 2 Parallel groups 29-Day all-cause mortality
  1. ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone; IL-1ra, IL-1 receptor antagonist; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.