Mean arterial pressure for septic animals (induced by cecal ligation and puncture) after infusion of 0.1 N HCl acid to reduce the base deficit (BD) by 5–10 mEq/l (white bars) or 10–15 mEq/l (black bars). A control group was given a similar volume of lactated Ringer's (gray bars). Shown are group means (n = 8) ± SEM. *P < 0.05. Adapted from Kellum and coworkers .