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Table 4 Sedation and pain control during the treatment period

From: Safety and efficacy of analgesia-based sedation with remifentanil versus standard hypnotic-based regimens in intensive care unit patients with brain injuries: a randomised, controlled trial [ISRCTN50308308]

Parameter Remifentanil (n = 84) Fentanyl (n = 37) Morphine (n = 40)
Optimal sedation (SAS = 1–3)    
   Percentage hours, median (range) 95.6 (15–100) 98.1 (87–100) 99.0 (0–100)
   Median difference (95% CI)   -2.36 (-4.4, -1.0) -2.30 (-4.2, -0.9)
   Pa   <0.001 <0.001
No pain or mild pain    
   Percentage hours, median (range) 99.3 (72–100) 99.7 (79–100) 99.2 (15–100)
   Median difference (95% CI)   0.0 (-0.5, 0.0) 0.0 (-0.4, 0.3)
   Pa   0.495 0.928
Moderate pain    
   Percentage hours, median (range) 0.4 (0–28) 0.0 (0–5) 0.1 (0–9)
   Median difference (95% CI)   0.0 (0.0, 0.4) 0.0 (0.0, 0.2)
   Pa   0.154 0.647
Severe, very severe or worst possible pain    
   Percentage hours, median (range) 0.0 (0–3) 0.0 (0–1) 0.0 (0–4)
   Median difference (95% CI)   0.0 (0.0, 0.0) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0)
   Pa   0.111 0.963
  1. CI, confidence interval; SAS, Sedation–Agitation Scale. aValue for treatment difference (remifentanil versus comparator).