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Table 4 A comparison of leading animal models for the study of acute renal failure

From: Acute renal failure – definition, outcome measures, animal models, fluid therapy and information technology needs: the Second International Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Group

Model Simple Reproducible Complete control over external factors Graded response easily achieved Tubular Medullary Inflammator y1 Functional injury and pathology correlate Matches human pathology Matches clinical scenario Clinical Relevance
Warm ischaemia2 + +   + + + + +    ±
Isolated perfused kidney   + + + + ±      
Radio contrast +     + + + + + + +
Combined insults      + + + ± ± + +
Gentamicin + +    ±     ± + +
Cisplatin3 + +    +     + + ±
Glycerol4 + +    +   +     +
Myoglobin/haemaglobin +           +
Endotoxin + +   +    +     
Bacterial infusion (iv) +       +     +
Bacterial infusion (ip) +       +     +
Caecal perforation +       +    + +
  1. In the first column a list of recognized models used for the study of acute renal failure is presented. Then, in each column, an evaluation is presented regarding whether a given model contains certain features. '+' Indicates the presence of a given feature; '±' indicates only the partial presence of that feature; and the absence of any sign indicates the lack of such a feature. For example, warm ischemia is simple but does not match the dominant clinical scenario and is of limited clinical relevance. 1Reproduces the type of injury seen in humans. 2Cold ischaemia is more clinically relevant to renal transplantation, but it is less well characterized. 3Clinical relevance is limited because less toxic alternatives are now available. 4Resembles clinical rhabdomyolysis.