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Table 3 Principles that should guide the development and study of animal models of acute renal failure

From: Acute renal failure – definition, outcome measures, animal models, fluid therapy and information technology needs: the Second International Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Group

General principles that must be applied to design of animal model Additional issues that must be considered to optimize the model
Proper randomization of animals Models should be chosen on the basis of their relevance to the clinical situation, and not merely by the reproducibility of the model
Similar baseline characteristics of the experimental groups Physiological parameters known to affect kidney function or susceptibility to injury should be controlled for, measured and reported (temperature, blood pressure, fluid status, type of anaesthesia, etc.)
Concurrent appropriate controls Appropriate preparation of tissue for valid pathological interpretation
Blinded assessment of outcome Fundamental requirements for a model should include morphology, haemodynamics and function
Consideration and reporting of mortality Outcomes should be measures at multiple time points
Numbers of animals studied should be appropriate to reproducibility of outcome measure Noninvasive biomarkers for renal parenchymal cell injury should be developed
  Models should be created that explicitly address comorbidities that are believed to predispose to acute renal failure and outcome in humans
  Experimental observations should be reproduced in other laboratories before they are generally accepted