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Table 2 The type of feeding route, energy requirement and actual macronutrient intakes of patients

From: Estimation of energy requirements for mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients using nutritional status

  Underfeeding (n = 15) Appropriate feeding (n = 20) Overfeeding (n = 19)
Feeding route    
   Enteral nutrition (number of subjects) 2 7 7
   Parenteral nutrition (number of subjects) 5 6 5
   Combined nutrition (number of subjects) 8 7 7
Energy expenditure    
   Respiratory quotient 0.91 ± 0.19b 0.97 ± 0.12a,b 1.16 ± 0.32a
   Measured energy expenditure* (kcal/day) 1878.9 ± 359.5a 1572.0 ± 256.0b 1272.4 ± 194.9c
   Total energy requirement (kcal/day) 2254.7 ± 431.3a 1886.4 ± 307.2b 1526.9 ± 233.8c
   Total energy requirement (kcal/kg/day) 35.7 ± 7.3 30.6 ± 6.9 30.6 ± 7.0
Nutrient intake    
   Energy (kcal) 1541.1 ± 305.9b 1869.6 ± 303.4a 2084.9 ± 448.9a
   Energy (kcal/kg per day) 24.9 ± 6.0b 30.3 ± 7.4b 41.5 ± 11.5a
   Carbohydrate (g) 246.4 ± 61.8 273.9 ± 77.3 304.3 ± 84.4
   Carbohydrate (g/kg per day) 4.0 ± 1.1b 4.4 ± 1.3b 6.0 ± 1.7a
   % of total energy 63.7 ± 10.4 58.5 ± 11.1 58.0 ± 6.2
   Protein (g) 59.8 ± 16.8 68.1 ± 22.7 66.4 ± 16.3
   Protein (g/kg per day) 1.0 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.5 1.3 ± 0.5
   % of total energy 16.3 ± 6.6 14.7 ± 5.2 12.9 ± 2.4
   Fat (g) 42.2 ± 20.7b 57.0 ± 19.1a,b 66.7 ± 11.8a
   Fat (g/kg per day) 0.7 ± 0.4b 0.9 ± 0.3b 1.4 ± 0.5a
   % of total energy 24.2 ± 10.9 27.7 ± 9.0 29.5 ± 5.7
  1. Values presented as mean ± standard deviation. Values in a row with different superscript letters are significantly different, P ≤ 0.05. *Resting energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Total energy requirement = measured energy expenditure + physical activity (5%) + day-to-day variation (15%).