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Table 1 Comparisons of clinical and biochemical variables according to baseline RDW value and ΔRDW 72hr-adm

From: An increase in red blood cell distribution width from baseline predicts mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock

Variables Total (n = 329) Groups based on baseline RDW value and ΔRDW72hr-adm P value
   Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4  
   (n = 108) (n = 63) (n = 121) (n = 37)  
Demographic data
 Age (years) 64.4 ± 15.6 59.7 ± 17.9 67.0 ± 12.1 66.3 ± 14.3 67.2 ± 15.7 0.002
 Male, n (%) 161 (48.9%) 47 (43.5%) 36 (57.1%) 56 (46.3%) 22 (59.5%) 0.176
 MAP (mmHg) 60.0 ± 8.3 60.2 ± 8.7 60.7 ± 7.7 59.7 ± 7.9 59.4 ± 9.8 0.863
 BMI (kg/m2) 23.0 ± 3.9 23.3 ± 4.1 22.1 ± 4.4 23.3 ± 3.4 22.7 ± 3.9 0.150
 APACHE II score 17.5 ± 7.3 14.8 ± 6.4 19.2 ± 17.3 17.3 ± 6.7 23.0 ± 7.6 <0.001
 SOFA score 8.1 ± 2.8 7.0 ± 2.5 8.8 ± 2.7 8.1 ± 2.9 9.5 ± 3.0 <0.001
 Charlson Comorbidity Index 1.4 ± 1.5 1.1 ± 1.3 2.0 ± 1.7 1.2 ± 1.4 1.5 ± 1.5 0.001
Biochemical data
 RDW at baseline (%) 14.0 ± 1.6 13.2 ± 0.7 16.0 ± 1.3 13.0 ± 0.8 15.8 ± 1.1 <0.001
 RDW at 72 hours (%) 14.1 ± 1.6 13.0 ± 0.7 15.6 ± 1.3 13.6 ± 0.8 16.5 ± 1.2 <0.001
 WBC (x 103/mm3) 13.9 ± 9.3 13.0 ± 7.4 15.1 ± 12.0 14.5 ± 9.8 12.2 ± 6.2 0.286
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.3 ± 2.2 12.8 ± 2.1 11.5 ± 1.8 12.5 ± 2.0 11.6 ± 2.7 <0.001
 Hematocrit (%) 36.6 ± 6.2 37.7 ± 6.1 34.7 ± 5.5 37.0 ± 5.9 35.3 ± 8.0 0.010
 CRP (mg/dL) 15.2 ± 11.3 13.1 ± 10.3 14.4 ± 11.8 16.9 ± 11.1 16.7 ± 13.1 0.054
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 2.1 ± 1.8 1.7 ± 1.7 2.4 ± 2.1 2.0 ± 1.5 2.6 ± 2.2 0.026
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 54.0 ± 27.7 59.0 ± 26.5 56.9 ± 29.9 49.5 ± 26.5 49.5 ± 29.5 0.045
 Albumin (g/dL) 3.3 ± 0.7 3.6 ± 0.6 2.9 ± 0.8 3.4 ± 0.6 2.9 ± 0.8 <0.001
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 128.7 ± 43.0 138.3 ± 41.9 115.1 ± 44.1 131.4 ± 39.8 114.8 ± 46.3 0.001
 Total bilirubin (mg/dL) 1.3 ± 1.5 1.2 ± 1.1 1.3 ± 1.7 1.2 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 2.7 0.224
 pH 7.42 ± 0.10 7.43 ± 0.08 7.41 ± 0.12 7.43 ± 0.09 7.39 ± 0.09 0.113
 Bicarbonate (mEq/L) 21.0 ± 5.2 21.1 ± 4.9 20.8 ± 5.6 21.3 ± 5.1 20.6 ± 6.1 0.094
 Lactate (mmol/L) 3.40 ± 2.80 3.17 ± 2.64 3.77 ± 2.56 3.13 ± 2.93 4.35 ± 3.00 0.065
Infection site, n (%) 0.002
 Lung (pneumonia) 80 (24.3%) 15 (13.9%) 23 (36.5%) 24 (19.8%) 18 (48.6%)  
 Urinary tract 81 (24.6%) 30 (27.8%) 10 (15.9%) 37 (30.6%) 4 (10.8%)  
 Intra-abdominal site 72 (21.9%) 29 (26.9%) 10 (15.9%) 26 (21.5%) 7 (18.9%)  
 Other 71 (21.6%) 28 (25.9%) 14 (22.2%) 24 (19.8%) 5 (13.5%)  
 Multiple sites 25 (7.6%) 6 (5.6%) 6 (9.5%) 10 (8.3%) 3 (8.1%)  
Acute kidney injury, n (%) 174 (52.9%) 49 (45.4%) 35 (55.6%) 68 (56.2%) 22 (59.5%) 0.284
RRT, n (%) 54 (16.4%) 6 (5.6%) 15 (23.8%) 16 (13.2%) 17 (45.9%) <0.001
28-day mortality, n (%) 33 (10.0%) 2 (1.9%) 11 (17.5%) 8 (6.6%) 12 (32.4%) <0.001
90-day mortality, n (%) 48 (14.6%) 2 (1.9%) 13 (20.6%) 16 (13.2%) 17 (45.9%) <0.001
Total length of hospital stay (days) 19.3 ± 22.8 14.3 ± 11.7 26.9 ± 22.8 16.6 ± 10.8 44.2 ± 64.3 <0.001
  1. Data are expressed as mean (with SD) or n (%). Group 1 was defined as patients with RDW levels with the reference range (normal RDW level) at baseline and ΔRDW72hr-adm ≤0.2%, group 2 as patients with increased RDW at baseline and ΔRDW72hr-adm ≤0.2%, group 3 as patients with normal RDW at baseline and ΔRDW72hr-adm >0.2%, and group 4 as patients with increased RDW at baseline and ΔRDW72hr-adm >0.2%; acute kidney injury was defined as any of the following: (i) increase in serum creatinine by ≥0.3 mg/dL within 48 hours, (ii) increase in serum creatinine to ≥1.5 times baseline, which is known or presumed to have occurred within the prior 7 days, (iii) urine volume <0.5 ml/kg/hour for 6 hours. RDW, red blood cell distribution width; ΔRDW72hr-adm, RDW at 72 hours – RDW at baseline; MAP, mean arterial pressure; BMI, body mass index; WBC, white blood cell; CRP, C-reactive protein; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; RRT, renal replacement therapy.