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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study patients according to 1-month survival

From: Neurological outcomes in patients transported to hospital without a prehospital return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest

Characteristic Survival (n = 7,532) Death (n = 390,589) P- value
Year    
 2007 1,734 (23.0) 89,078 (22.8) 0.7152
 2008 1,899 (25.2) 97,715 (25.0)
 2009 1,861 (24.7) 98,802 (25.3)
 2010 2,038 (27.1) 104,994 (26.9)
Age, years (median 77, IQR 65 to 85) 69.0 ± 16.2 73.8 ± 16.2 <0.0001
 < 65 2,632 (34.9) 91,697 (23.5) <0.0001
 65 to 85 3,875 (51.5) 204,762 (52.4)
 > 85 1,025 (13.6) 94,130 (24.1)
Male 4,743 (63.0) 224,814 (57.6) <0.0001
Arrest witnessed by any layperson 5,112 (67.9) 140,948 (36.1) <0.0001
Arrest witnessed by EMS personnel 1,039 (13.8) 17,562 (4.5) <0.0001
Bystander CPR 3,429 (45.5) 172,815 (44.2) 0.0266
Presumed cardiac cause 4,444 (59.0) 218,477 (55.9) <0.0001
Initial cardiac rhythm    
 Ventricular fibrillation 2,144 (28.5) 21,352 (5.5) <0.0001
 Pulseless ventricular tachycardia 54 (0.7) 673 (0.2)
 Pulseless electrical activity 2,696 (35.8) 81,312 (20.8)
 Asystole 2,638 (35.0) 287,252 (73.5)
Prehospital actual shock delivery 2,311 (30.7) 33,809 (8.7) <0.0001
Use of advanced airway management 2,414 (32.1) 125,583 (32.2) 0.889
Epinephrine administration 698 (9.3) 29,519 (7.6) <0.0001
Physician-staffed ambulance 282 (3.7) 8,132 (2.1) <0.0001
Call-to-response time, minutes (median 7, IQR 5 to 9) 6.6 ± 3.1 7.5 ± 3.8 <0.0001
 < 5 1,608 (21.4) 63,019 (16.1) <0.0001
 5 to 9 5,014 (66.6) 248,769 (63.7)
 > 9 910 (12.1) 78,801 (20.2)
Call-to-hospital arrival time, minutes (median 30, IQR 24 to 37) 27.8 ± 11.1 31.9 ± 11.7 <0.0001
 < 24 2,808 (37.3) 86,614 (22.2) <0.0001
 24 to 37 3,817 (50.7) 216,927 (55.5)
 > 37 907 (12.0) 87,048 (22.3)
  1. Values are reported either as n (%) or mean ± standard deviation. CPC, cerebral performance category; CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation; EMS, emergency medical service.