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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included

From: Death after percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy: a systematic review and analysis of risk factors

Study Departmental data obtained by personal communication with the corresponding author
Author   Year Design Population Number of PDTs Number of deaths Mortality rate Number of PDTs Number of deaths Mortality rate
Byhahn [16]   CR    2     
Cobean [15]   CR    1     
Hutchinson [17] 1991 CR    1     
Cokis [18] 2000 CR    1     
Hürter [19] 2000 CR Surgical   1   252 2 0.79
Drage [20] 2002 CR    1     
Maeda [21] 2002 CR Mixed   1     
Soubirou [22] 2002 CR Surgical   1     
Ryan [23] 2003 CR    1     
Shlugman [24] 2003 CR Neurological   1   700 1 0.14
McCormick [25] 2005 CR Mixed   3   2,100 4 0.19
Grant [26] 2006 CR Mixed   3     
Rosolski [27] 2006 CR Mixed   1   420 1 0.24
Ayoub [28] 2007 CR    1     
Zehlicke [29] 2007 CR    1     
Wang [30] 2009 CR    1     
Hoiting [31] 2010 CR    2     
Gilbey [32] 2012 CR Mixed   1   420 1 0.24
Ivatury [33] 1992 RS   61 1 1.64    
Cobean [34] 1996 RS Mixed 65 1 1.54 1,080 2 0.19
van Heurn [35] 1996 RS Mixed 150 1 0.67 880 1 0.11
Thompson [36] 2001 RS Medical 300 1 0.33    
Pandit [37] 2006 RS Mixed 501 1 0.20 1,265 2 0.16
Klein [38] 2007 RS Mixed 207 1 0.48    
Dennis [39] 2013 RS   3162 5 0.16 3,162 5 0.16
Toye [40] 1986 POS   94 1 1.06    
Marelli [41] 1990 POS   61 1 1.64    
Wang [42] 1992 POS Surgical 7 1 14.29    
Friedman [43] 1993 POS   100 1 1.00    
Cole [44] 1994 POS   55 1 1.82    
Barba [45] 1995 POS Surgical 27 1 3.70    
Muhl [46] 1995 POS Surgical 14 1 7.14 720 1 0.14
Joosten [47] 1996 POS Surgical 53 1 1.89 420 1 0.24
Marx [48] 1996 POS   254 1 0.39    
Berrouschot [49] 1997 POS Neurological 76 2 2.63 900 2 0.22
Walz [50] 1998 POS   337 2 0.59    
Suh [51] 1999 POS   95 2 2.11 1,040 2 0.19
Escarment [52] 2000 POS   162 2 1.23    
Kearney [53] 2000 POS Mixed 827 5 0.60 5,400 9 0.17
Lim [54] 2000 POS   261 2 0.77    
Norwood [55] 2000 POS   422 1 0.24    
Tan [56] 2004 POS   352 1 0.28    
Byhahn [57] 2005 POS Surgical 474 2 0.42 2,775 4 0.14
Chiu [58] 2005 POS Medical 107 1 0.93 900 1 0.11
Páez [59] 2005 POS   38 2 5.26    
Porter [60] 1999 RT Surgical 12 1 8.33    
Massick [61] 2001 RT Medical 50 1 2.00    
Own cases     Mixed   3   1,873 3 0.16
Summary      8324 71 2.18* 24,307 42 0.17
  1. *Calculated mean mortality rate including data from retrospective studies, prospective observational studies and randomized trials. CR, case report, RS, retrospective study, POS, prospective observational study, RT, randomized trial.