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Table 1 Hemodynamic parameters at different time points

From: Role of calcium desensitization in the treatment of myocardial dysfunction after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

   Control Epinephrine Levosimendan
HR bpm T0 360 ± 16 354 ± 13 342 ± 12
T1 340 ± 9 346 ± 7 322 ± 9
T2 352 ± 11 362 ± 11 355 ± 10
MAP mmHg T0 130 ± 11 127 ± 12 129 ± 13
T1 92 ± 9 85 ± 8 87 ± 8
T2 85 ± 6* 164 ± 13* 112 ± 10
LVESP mmHg T0 95.2 ± 4.3 92.2 ± 6.4 93.4 ± 5.7
T1 66.2 ± 7.4 58.4 ± 5.1 63.5 ± 6.0
T2 72.4 ± 8.9* 104.3 ± 9.2 98.5 ± 4.7
LVEDP mmHg T0 8.2 ± 0.8 8.0 ± 0.5 8.6 ± 0.6
T1 12.2 ± 1.4 11.8 ± 2.1 12.5 ± 1.8
T2 13.4 ± 0.9* 11.6 ± 0.8* 8.1 ± 0.5
SV μL T0 65 ± 10 63 ± 9 63 ± 6
T1 23 ± 8 25 ± 9 23 ± 9
T2 25 ± 10* 41 ± 9* 58 ± 7
CO ml/min T0 43 ± 3 47 ± 5 45 ± 5
T1 15 ± 6 13 ± 8 14 ± 5
T2 16 ± 10* 21 ± 5* 38 ± 7
CI ml/min/100 g BW T0 9.02 ± 1.92 9.02 ± 1.92 10.8 ± 1.22
T1 4.01 ± 0.51 4.21 ± 0.48 4.21 ± 0.48
T2 4.35 ± 0.60* 4.95 ± 0.73* 9.95 ± 1.43
dP/dt max mmHg/s T0 7,305 ± 184 7,427 ± 193 7,289 ± 201
T1 4,667 ± 145 4,588 ± 210 4,644 ± 185
T2 4,850 ± 174* 7,171 ± 189 7,221 ± 174
dP/dt min mmHg/s T0 7,672 ± 306 7,511 ± 285 7,622 ± 297
T1 4,856 ± 288 4,992 ± 199 4,741 ± 283
T2 4,510 ± 190* 5,701 ± 189* 7,485 ± 190
TPRI mmHg/ml/min/100 g BW T0 2.78 ± 0.22 2.63 ± 0.18 2.57 ± 0.25
T1 1.98 ± 0.19 1.88 ± 0.21 1.90 ± 0.23
T2 2.12 ± 0.25* 5.70 ± 0.70* 2.60 ± 0.31
  1. (T0 = baseline; T1 = end of CPB-assisted rewarming; T2 = end of 60 min intravenous infusion).
  2. CI, cardiac index; CO, cardiac output; dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin maximal slope of the systolic pressure increment and the diastolic pressure decrement, respectively; HR, heart rate; LVESP, LV end-systolic pressure; LVEDP, LV end-diastolic pressure; MAP, mean arterial pressure; SV, stroke volume; TPRI, total peripheral resistance index.
  3. Data are expressed as mean ± SD *P<0.05 T2 vs T0.