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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Development and Standardization of a Furosemide Stress Test to Predict the Severity of Acute Kidney Injury

Variable Combined Non-progressors AKIN III P
  n = 77 n = 52 n = 25  
Age, years 65.3 (1.6) 63.8 (2.2) 68.2 (1.9) 0.13
Gender, % male 42.8% 36.5% 56.0% 0.14
Race, n (%)     
African American 44 (57.1%) 29 (55.6%) 15 (60.0%) 0.63
Caucasian 23 (29.9%) 15 (28.8%) 8 (32.0%) 0.92
Hispanic 10 (13.0%) 8 (15.4%) 2 (8.0%) 0.48
Comorbidities, n (%)     
CKD 24 (31.0%) 17 (32.7%) 7 (28.0%) 0.80
Hypertension 60 (78.0%) 41 (78.8%) 19 (76.0%) 0.78
CHF 25 (33.0%) 15 (29.0%) 10 (40.0%) 0.44
DM 35 (44.0%) 22 (41.5%) 13 (52.0%) 0.47
Nephrotoxic exposure, n (%)     
NSAIDS 8 (10.0)% 6 (2.0%) 2 (1.0%) 1.00
Aminoglycosides 1 (1.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.4%) 0.63
Amphotericin 2 (3.0%) 2 (4.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1.00
Contrast 21 (27.0%) 15 (28.8%) 6 (23.1%) 0.79
Post-cardiac surgery 9 (11.7%) 6 (11.5%) 3 (12.0%) 1.00
Sepsis 15 (19.5%) 12 (23.1%) 3 (12.0%) 0.36
Clinical Data     
Baseline eGFR, ml/minute/1.73m2 68.6 (4.1) 60.0 (8.8) 73.3 (4.2) 0.15
Baseline UFR (ml/hr) 74.6 (11.6) 95.7 (16.3) 29.7 (4.2) 0.001
Furosemide-naïve, n (%) 29 (37.7%) 23 (44.2%) 6 (24.0%) 0.13
Urine cast score) 2.3 (0.13) 2.1 (0.16) 2.7 (0.23) 0.05
FeNa above 1%, n (%)a 14 (18.0%) 10 (19.2%) 4 (16.0%) 1.00
CV SOFA score 1.16 (0.3) 1.05 (0.2) 1.5 (0.4) 0.37
APACHE II score 17.8 (1.11) 16.5 (1.2) 21.6 (2.5) 0.08
AKIN stage at enrollment, n (%)     
AKIN I 41 (53.2%) 34 (65.4%) 7 (28.0%) 0.003
AKIN II 36 (46.7%) 18 (34.6%) 18 (72.0%) 0.003
Outcomes, n (%)     
Death 16 (20.7%) 7 (13.4%) 9 (36.0%) 0.04
AKIN stage III 25 (32.4%) N/A 25 (100%) N/A
RRT 11 (14.2%) N/A 11 (44.0%) N/A
Death/AKIN III 32 (41.5%) 7 (13.4%) 25 (100.0%) 0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard error unless otherwise indicated. CKD, chronic kidney disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; DM, diabetes mellitus; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; UFR, urinary flow rate; CV SOFA, Cardiovascular Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; AKIN, Acute Kidney Injury Network; FeNa, fractional excretion of sodium; RRT, renal replacement therapy; RPP, renal perfusion pressure; n, number of patients; N/A, not applicable. aFeNa not assessed in 29 patients because the George Washington University Urine Sediment Score was already ≥2 at the time of assessment.