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Table 1 Characteristics at baseline and on day one of intensive care unit admission.

From: Characteristics and outcomes of culture-negative versus culture-positive severe sepsis

  Culture-negative patients (n= 415) Culture-positive patients (n= 586) P value
Demographics    
   Age, years 62.0 (50.0-74.0) 64.0 (50.1-74.0) 0.62
   Men 236 (56.9) 375 (64.0) 0.02
   Race    0.09
Chinese 229 (55.2) 358 (61.1)  
Malay 106 (25.5) 120 (20.5)  
Indian 56 (13.5) 64 (10.9)  
Others 24 (5.8) 44 (7.5)  
Source of admission    0.49
   Emergency department 195 (47.0) 257 (43.9)  
   Hospital floor 195 (47.0) 293 (50.0)  
   Other ICU 25 (6.0) 34 (5.8)  
   Operating room/recovery 0 (0) 2 (0.3)  
Time of ICU admission    
   Day of hospital admission 0 (0-2.00) 0 (0-2.00) 0.38
   Office hour admission 166 (40.0) 260 (44.4) 0.17
Comorbid conditions    
   Diabetes mellitus 141 (34.0) 234 (39.9) 0.06
   Chronic heart failure 22 (5.3) 40 (6.8) 0.32
   Chronic kidney disease 48 (11.6) 96 (16.4) 0.03
   COPD 24 (5.8) 38 (6.5) 0.65
   Cancer 29 (7.0) 55 (9.4) 0.18
   Hematological malignancy 9 (2.2) 24 (4.1) 0.09
No. of comorbid conditionsa    0.004
   0 214 (51.6) 241 (41.1)  
   1 136 (32.8) 225 (38.4)  
   2 59 (14.2) 98 (16.7)  
   ≥3 6 (1.4) 22 (3.8)  
Vital signs upon ICU admission    
   Temperature, °C 37.0 (36.0-38.0) 37 (36.2-38.0) 0.29
   Heart rate, /min 107.3 ± 27.5 113.4 ± 25.9 <0.001
   Mean blood pressure, mm Hg 78.0 (64.0-96.0) 75.0 (62.0-91.0) 0.01
   Respiratory rate, /min 24.0 (20.0-31.0) 25.0 (20.0-31.0) 0.84
Investigationsb    
   White blood cell, 109/L 13.27 (9.18-19.47) 13.44 (6.58-19.65) 0.19
   Procalcitonin, ng/mL 3.95 (0.90-17.28) 16.40 (2.74-47.03) <0.001
   C-reactive protein, mg/L 47.50 (14.05-191.50) 51.50 (11.63-181.50) 0.53
Severity scores    
   APACHE II 25.0 (19.0-32.0) 27.0 (21.0-33.0) 0.001
   Acute Physiology Score 20.0 (14.0-26.0) 22.0 (16.8-28.3) <0.001
   SOFA 9.0 (6.0-12.0) 10.0 (8.0-13.0) <0.001
Organ failurec    
   Renal 88 (21.2) 127 (21.7) 0.86
   Respiratory 239 (57.6) 344 (58.7) 0.73
   Cardiovascular 205 (49.4) 360 (61.4) <0.001
   Central nervous system 142 (34.2) 241 (41.1) 0.03
   Coagulation 31 (7.5) 66 (11.3) 0.046
   Hepatic 15 (3.6) 37 (6.3) 0.06
Treatment on day one in the ICU    
   Vasoactive agents 247 (59.5) 432 (73.7) <0.001
   Mechanical ventilation 315 (75.9) 469 (80.0) 0.12
   Renal replacement therapy 37 (8.9) 51 (8.7) 0.91
   Glucocorticoids for septic shock 104 (25.1) 143 (24.4) 0.81
  1. aCulture-negative patients were more likely to have no comorbidities than culture-positive patients (P = 0.001, significant after Bonferroni correction); bwhite blood cell values available for all patients; procalcitonin values available for 266 culture-negative and 359 culture-positive patients; C-reactive protein values available for 120 culture-negative patients and 174 culture-positive patients; corgan failure defined as SOFA score >2 for the specified organ. ICU, intensive care unit; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment.