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Table 3 Characteristics of ICU patients admitted during each time period.

From: Changes in hospital mortality for United States intensive care unit admissions from 1988 to 2012

Cohort 1988-1989 1993-1996 2001-2003 2004-2006 2007-2009 2010-2012
# Admissions 17,440 37,668 110,534 101,031 113,743 102,225
Age (mean) 59.3 59.6 61.9 61.4 61.3 61.4
APS (mean) 39.3 34.2 39.0 39.3 42.0 42.2
≥ 1 chronic health conditions 12.0% 13.3% 10.0% 14.9% 14.8% 14.0%
% on ventlator, day 1 33.9% Not Available 39.6% 37.9% 39.7% 36.0%
Location before admission       
   Post-operative 42.3% 30.3% 35.8% 34.7% 26.5% 23.1%
   Emergency Room 35.5% 39.0% 33.3% 32.9% 37.7% 37.8%
   Floor/Dir Adm/Other 16.4% 16.5% 12.9% 12.5% 14.6% 13.7%
   Other hospital 2.4% 7.7% 8.8% 8.1% 12.3% 15.7%
   ICU transfer 3.3% 3.7% 5.7% 7.1% 3.5% 2.0%
   Step down unit N/A 2.9% 3.6% 4.7% 5.4% 7.7%
% Emergency surgery 9.0% 6.4% 4.5% 5.5% 5.4% 4.9%
% Race = white 80.3% 78.0% 73.9% 75.8% 78.2% 79.2%
ICU LOS (mean days) 4.64 4.30 3.43 3.86 3.96 3.58
Hospital LOS (mean days) 15.6 11.6 10.0 10.9 10.8 9.7
Hospital Mortality % 17.3% 12.4% 12.6% 11.9% 12.1% 11.3%
  1. APS, acute physiology score; LOS, length of stay.