Skip to main content

Table 5 Proportion of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies used during each phase of the study

From: Decreasing severe pain and serious adverse events while moving intensive care unit patients: a prospective interventional study (the NURSE-DO project)

  Phase 1
(baseline)
n= 184
Phase 2
(intervention)
n= 129
Phase 3
(adjustment)
n= 170
Phase 4
(consolidation)
n= 149
P
1-2
P
1-3
P
1-4
Analgesics drugs, n (%)        
WHO step 3 28 (15%) 32 (25%) 36 (21%) 33 (22%) 0.11 0.14 0.12
WHO step 2: tramadol 17 (9%) 25 (19%) 48 (28%) 49 (33%) 0.19 0.001 < 0.001
WHO step 1: acetaminophen 29 (16%) 23 (18%) 44 (26%) 36 (24%) 0.72 0.23 0.17
   nefopam 22 (12%) 9 (7%) 26 (15%) 33 (22%) 0.24 0.71 0.11
At least one drug 60 (33%) 56 (43%) 86 (51%) 79 (53%) 0.22 0.01 0.002
Number of drugs per patient, mean (SD) 0.52 (0.70) 0.69 (0.77) 0.91(0.85) 1.01 (0.97) 0.30 0.008 < 0.001
Non pharmacological therapies
Explication*, n (%) 158 (87%) 91(71%) 140 (82%)   0.01 0.62 ND
Massage, n (%) 120 (66%) 82 (64%) 64 (38%)   0.86 < 0.001 ND
Standard music listening, n (%) 12 (7%) 10 (8%) 4 (2%)   0.08 < 0.001 ND
Music therapy, n (%) 0 (0%) 5 (4%) 0 (0%)   0.99 1.00 ND
At least one therapy, n (%) 160 (88%) 98 (76%) 142 (84%)   0.06 0.54 ND
Number of therapies per patient, mean (SD) 2 (1;3] 3 (1;4] 1 (1;2]   < 0.01 0.05 ND
  1. ND, not done (external audit of medical chart records); SD, Standard Deviation; WHO, World Health Organization. Analgesics were classified according to the WHO's pain relief ladder [55] used to treat pain. 1st step, non-opioid analgesics; 2nd step, minor opioids; 3rd step, major opioids. Non-pharmacological therapies were evaluated for the three first phases. Non-pharmacological therapies were not assessed during the post-intervention Phase 4 (see text). * Explication of the procedure process, insurance that pain will be taken into consideration, if any.