VAP occurred in 21 patients (9.21%) or 8.21 per 1,000 ventilator-days. The onset of VAP was late in the majority of patients. The most common organism was A. baumannii (66%), followed by P. aeuruginosa (19%). Compared with non-VAP groups, patients in the VAP group had higher APACHE II score (18 vs. 13, P < 0.001), blood transfusion (95% vs. 75%, P = 0.04), numbers of CVC used (3 vs. 1, P < 0.001), muscle relaxant used (43% vs. 3%, P < 0.001) and steroid used (33% vs. 4%, P < 0.001). The VAP group also had a significantly higher number of intubation, reintubation and self-extubation. Multiple logistic regression showed that numbers of CVC, intubation and surgery, the use of muscle relaxant and steroid were independent risk factors for developing VAP. Ventilator days and ICU length of stay were longer in the VAP group (25 vs. 6 and 25 vs. 7 days, respectively). Lastly, the hospital mortality rate was significantly higher in the VAP group (33% vs. 12%, P = 0.008).