Skip to main content

Table 2 Differences between brain and body temperature (°C) measurement sites for studies under review

From: Clinical review: Brain-body temperature differences in adults with severe traumatic brain injury

Reference Core body temperature measurement site Number of patients Thermoregulatory interventions (target temperature) Mean difference (SD) (°C) 95% confidence interval
Rumana et al. [18] Rectal 30 No thermoregulatory interventions 1.1 (0.6) (0.89 to 1.31)a
Zhang et al. [21] Rectal 18b No thermoregulatory interventions 0.8c  
Childs et al. [19] Rectal 19 No thermoregulatory interventions -0.04 (0.9) (-0.13 to 0.05)
Puccio et al. [17] Rectal 21 No thermoregulatory interventions -0.4c  
Kirk et al. [14] Tympanic membrane 20b No thermoregulatory interventions 0.9 (0.7) (0.59 to 1.21)a
Kirk et al. [14] Temporal artery 20b No thermoregulatory interventions 0.3 (0.4) (0.12 to 0.48)a
Kuo et al. [15] Temporal artery 28b No thermoregulatory interventions 0.64 (0.60) (0.42 to 0.86)a
Kuo et al. [15] Rectal 28b No thermoregulatory interventions 0.23 (0.45) (0.06 to 0.40)a
Henker et al. [16] Bladder 6b Induced hypothermia therapy using hypothermia blankets, iced water lavage, and decreased ventilator circuit temperature (Tbl:32.0 to 33.0°C) 1.0 (0.7)c  
Henker et al. [16] Rectal 8b Induced hypothermia therapy using hypothermia blankets, iced water lavage, and decreased ventilator circuit temperature (Tbl: 32.0 to 33.0°C) 0.8 (0.8)c  
Zhang et al. [21] Rectal 18b 24 hours after induced hypothermia therapy using cooler blankets (Tr: 31.5 to 34.9°C) 1.1c  
Soukup et al. [12] Rectal 58d Induced hypothermia therapy (Tbr <36.0°C) -0.2 (0.6) (-0.24 to -0.16)a
Tokutomi et al. [13] Rectal 31b Induced hypothermia therapy using water-circulating blankets (Tbr = 33.0°C) 0.5 (0.3) (0.39 to 0.61)a
Tokutomi et al. [13] Jugular vein 31b Induced hypothermia therapy using water-circulating blankets (Tbr = 33.0°C) 0.3 (0.3) (0.19 to 0.41)a
Suehiro et al. [20] Bladder 11 Induced hypothermia therapy using water-cooling blankets (Tbr = 36.0 to 37.5°C) -0.17 (0.02) (-0.18 to -0.16)a
Zhang et al. [21] Rectal 18b Induced normothermia using cooler blankets (Tr: 36.5 to 37.0°C) 1.4c  
Soukup et al. [12] Rectal 58d Spontaneous normothermia (Tbr: 36.0 to 37.5°C) 0.0 (0.5) (-0.02 to 0.02)a
Puccio et al. [17] Rectal 21 Induced normothermia using intravascular cooling catheters (Tr: 36.0 to 36.5°C) -0.1c  
Fischer et al. [11] Bladder 7 Induced normothermia using intravascular cooling device (Tbl = 36.5 °C) 0.1c  
Soukup et al. [12] Rectal 58d Spontaneous hyperthermia (Tbr>37.5°C) 0.3 (0.5) (0.28 to 0.32)a
Soukup et al. [12] Rectal 58d Spontaneous hypothermia (Tbr <36.0°C) -0.8 (1.4) (-1.03 to -0.57)a
  1. aMean difference, standard deviation (SD), and 95% confidence interval; data calculated by reviewers using 'raw' data values provided in the respective publications.
  2. bMultiple recruitment categories. cUnable to calculate SD and/or 95% CI due to insufficient 'raw' data in publication. dAuthors did not specify patients in each group. Tbl, bladder temperature; Tbr, brain temperature; Tr, rectal temperature.