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Table 1 Summary of the physiological studies

From: Clinical review: Helmet and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients

Source Type of non-invasive ventilation Number of subjects Interface Control Results
Patroniti et al. (2003) [7] CPAP 8 Helmet FM Higher CO2 rebreathing with helmet
Taccone et al. (2004) [8] CPAP 8 Helmet FM Higher CO2 rebreathing with helmet
Patroniti et al. (2007) [9] CPAP 5 Helmet with and without antisuffocation valve - CO2 rebreathing limited by safety valve
Milan et al. (2011) [10] CPAP 5 Helmet with antisuffocation valve - CO2 rebreathing decreased by a higher diameter of safety valve
Costa et al. (2005) [11] PSV 8 Helmet - CO2 rebreathing not affected by PEEP on PSV level; inspiratory effort decreased, increasing the PSV
Racca et al. (2008) [13] PSV - CPAP 10 Helmet - Lower CO2 rebreathing with open circuit mechanical ventilators
Chiumello et al. (2003) [14] PSV - CPAP 6 Helmet FM Similar breathing pattern and WOB during CPAP, higher reduction of WOB during PSV with FM
Racca et al. (2005) [12] PSV 6 Helmet FM Higher CO2 rebreathing, inspiratory effort, autocycled breaths and dyspnea score with helmet during respiratory muscle load
Costa et al. (2010) [19] PSV different inspiratory-expiratory cycling criteria 8 Helmet FM Shorter ventilator inspiratory time and longer with inspiratory-expiratory delay with helmet. The fast setting ameliorated patient-ventilator interaction
Moerer et al. (2008) [21] PSV pneumatically versus neutrally triggered 7 Helmet - Shorter inspiratory-expiratory delays, lower wasted efforts and better comfort with neurally triggered PSV
Chiumello et al. (2008) [24] CPAP 10 Helmet - Higher temperature and humidity of inspired gas compared to un-humidified medical gases
Cavaliere et al. (2003) [25] PSV 10 Helmet FM Higher acoustic compliance with Helmet
  1. CO2, carbon dioxide; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; FM, face mask; PSV, pressure-support ventilation; WOB, work of breathing.