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Table 3 Patient presentation and on-site clinical assessment and care.

From: Risk factors for onset of hypothermia in trauma victims: The HypoTraum study

  Patients with hypothermia on arrival at hospital Patients without hypothermia on arrival at hospital P
Trauma victims - Number (%) 62 (13) 399 (87)  
Presentation of victim
Trapped - Number (%) 7 (11) 51 (13) 0.6
Seated - Number (%) 6 (9) 61 (16) 0.2
Lying - Number (%) 58 (91) 319 (83)  
On the ground - Number (%) 51 (80) 215 (56) 0.01
Unclothed - Number (%) 25 (39) 117 (30) 0.2
Covered by a blanket - Number (%) 33 (53) 194 (49) 0.8
Wet - Number (%) 14 (22) 34 (9) 0.01
Clinical examination
Head injury - Number (%) 45 (70) 165 (43) 0.0001
Chest injury - Number (%) 24 (37) 112 (29) 0.2
Abdominal injury - Number (%) 7 (11) 51 (13) 0.8
Hip injury - Number (%) 10 (16) 66 (17) 1
Limb injury - Number (%) 33 (52) 149 (39) 0.04
Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) 12 (5-15) 15 (15-15) 0.0001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 118 (74-139) 125 (110-140) 0.01
Heart rate (bpm) 88 (70-110) 88 (75-100) 0.5
Respiratory rate (breaths/min) 18 (15-24) 18 (16-22) 0.6
Pulse oxymetry (SpO2) 98 (96-100) 99 (97100) 0.2
Revised Trauma Score (RTS) 10 (8-11) 11 (11-11) <0.0001
Initial tympanic temperature (°C) 34.2 (33.2-34.8) 35.7 (35.1-36.4) <0.0001
On-site management    
Time from accident to EMS arrival (min) 30 (22-43) 30 (24-45) 0.8
Mobile unit temp on arrival (°C) 21.7 (19.6-23.0) 22.0 (20.0-25.2) <0.0001
Lowest mobile unit temperature (°C) 19.8 (18.0-22.0) 21.7 (19.7-24.9) <0.0001
Vascular filling volume (ml) 510 (300-1250) 300 (210-500) <0.0001
Infusion fluid temperature (°C) 19.5 (17.7-21.0) 22.0 (19.2-24.9) <0.0001
Catecholamine - Number (%) 9 (14) 7 (2) <0.0001
Orotracheal intubation - Number (%) 32 (50) 25 (7) <0.0001
Morphine - Number (%) 37 (58) 223 (58) 1
Warming - Number (%)a 56 (87) 284 (74) 0.03
Time from EMS arrival to hospital admission (min) 65 (53-90) 60 (45-75) 0.01
  1. aActive in 14 patients. Values are given as medians with 25-75 percentiles. EMS. Emergency medical services.