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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: The effect of telemedicine in critically ill patients: systematic review and meta-analysis

Source ICUs/hospitals, n Patientsa(total/pre/post), n Age (years) Sex (% male) Illness severity
    Control Telemedicine Control Telemedicine Control Telemedicine
Rosenfeld et al. 2000 [10] 1/1 628/227/201 61 61 56 57 APACHE III 37 APACHE III 38
Breslow et al. 2004 [8] 2/1 2,140/1,396/744 61 60 56 50 APACHE III APS 39 APACHE III
APS 38
Marcin et al. 2004 [27] 1/1 296/249/47 5.5 5.3 NR NR PRISM III
7.5
PRISM III
9.6
Kohl et al. 2007 [30] 1/1 2,811/189/2,622 NR NR NR NR NR NR
Vespa et al. 2007 [28] 1/1 1,218/578/640 NR NR NR NR NR NR
Norman et al. 2009 [31] 1/1 1,275/356/919 NR NR NR NR APACHE IV 57 APACHE IV 53
Thomas et al. 2009 [9] 6/5 4,142/2,034/2,108 60 59 51 53 SAPS II 35 SAPS II 34
McCambridge et al. 2010 [11] 3/1 1,913/954/959 65 64 50 50 APACHE IV APS 57 APACHE IV APS 58
Morrison et al. 2010 [12] 4/2 4,088/1,371/2,717 64 65 56 52 APACHE III 49 APACHE III 48
Lilly et al. 2011 [29] 7/1 6,290/1,529/4,761 62 64 57 57 APACHE III 45 APACHE III 58
Willmitch et al. 2012 [32] 10/5 24,656/6,504/18,152 NR NR NR NR CMI 2.68 CMI 2.77
  1. All studies were conducted in the United States. Of the 49,457 patients enrolled, 33,870 were enrolled in the telemedicine arm. Continuous data are expressed as mean (SD). aThe number of patients in each category corresponds to the number used in the meta-analysis. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; APS, Acute Physiology Score; CMI, Case Mix Index; ICU, intensive care unit; ISS, Injury Severity Score; NR, not reported; PRISM, Pediatric Risk of Mortality Score; SAPS, Simplified Acute Physiology Score.