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Table 2 Visual assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using the ultrasound stethoscope*

From: Assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction using an ultrasonic stethoscope in critically ill patients

  Visual assessment of LVEF with the ultrasound stethoscope
Reference LVEF Increased
LVEF > 75%
Normal
LVEF: 50 to 75%
Moderately depressed
LVEF: 30 to 49%
Severely depressed
LVEF < 30%
Increased 4 4 0 0
Normal 1 47 1 0
Moderately depressed 0 3 11 0
Severely depressed 0 1 4 6
  1. *: Biplane LVEF measured off-line with the Simpson's rule using an upper-end system was used as a reference.