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Table 3 Outcomes of selected interventions

From: Protocols in the management of critical illness

Disease/process Intervention Outcome Study
ALI/ARDS Low tidal volume ventilation with PEEP table Decrease in mortality and unassisted breathing before discharge to home (39.8 to 31%), and increase in ventilator free days (10 ± 11 to 12 ± 11 days) ARMA [7]
Severe sepsis/septic shock Early goal-directed therapy Reduction in in-hospital mortality (46.5% to 30.5%) Rivers et al. [24]
Liberation from MV support Spontaneous breathing trials Reduction in length of MV support (6 days to 4.5 days), and more rapid extubation after meeting criteria (after 1 day rather than 3 days) Ely et al. [16]
Sedation Daily awakenings Reduction in length of MV support (7.3 days to 4.9 days), and reduction in ICU LOS (9.9 days to 6.4 days) Kress et al. [15]
Anemia Restrictive transfusions No change in 30-day mortality (18.7% for restrictive group and 23.3% for liberal group); reduction in hospital mortality for restrictive group (28.1% to 22.2%) Hebert et al. [23]
Ischemic stroke tPA within 3 hours Improved clinical outcome at 3 months as assessed by four outcome measures (Barthel index, modified Rankin scale, Glasgow outcome scale and NIHSS) NINDS rt-PA [18]
VT/VF arrest Hypothermia Favorable neurologic recovery (55% versus 39%) and decreased mortality at 6 months (55% to 41%) [19]; increased odds ratio for discharge to home or rehabilitation (5.25, 95% CI of 1.47 to 18.76) [20] Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest Study Group [19]; Bernard et al. [20]
  1. ALI, acute lung injury; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; CI, confidence interval; LOS, length of stay; MV, mechanical ventilation; NINDS rt-PA, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA Stroke Study Group; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressure; tPA, tissue plasminogen activator; VF, ventricular fibrillation; VT, ventricular tachycardia.