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Table 2 Prognostic factors of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

From: The association between serum adhesion molecules and outcome in acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

  Poor outcome
n = 43
Good outcome
n = 17
Odds ratio P value
Age in years, mean ± standard deviation     
Men 31 11 1.409 0.755
   Underlying diseases     
   Hypertension 40 15 1.778 0.616
   Diabetes mellitus 10 0   0.049a
   Asthma 2 0   1.000
   Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 5 2 0.987 1.000
   Atrial fibrillation 3 2 0.563 0.616
   Coronary artery disease 3 1 1.200 1.000
   Hyperlipidermia 9 10 0.185 0.012a
   Smoking 25 9 1.235 0.777
Clinical feature at presentation     
   Headache 19 7 1.131 1.000
   Brief unconsciousness 26 14 0.328 0.136
   Mentality change 24 4 4.105 0.043a
   Seizure 2 0   1.000
Laboratory data at presentation, median (IQR)     
   White blood cell count, × 103/mL 8.7 (6.8, 10.6) 7.2 (5.7, 10.0)   0.144
   Platelet count, × 103/mL 206.0 (160.0, 259.0) 205.0 (171.5, 218.5)   0.512
Brain image findings at presentation     
   Intracerebral hemorrhage volume in cubic millimeters, median (IQR) 12.0 (7.0, 34.0) 7.2 (2.0, 17.5)   0.036a
   Intraventricular hemorrhage 18 1 11.52 0.006a
   Hydrocephalus 9 0   0.050
Glasgow Coma Scale score at presentation, median (IQR) 14 (9, 15) 15 (15, 15)   ≤0.001a
Surgical intervention 16 0   0.003a
   Extraventricular drainage 5 0   0.309
   Craniotomy 10 0   0.049a
   Craniectomy 3 0   0.511
Serum adhesion molecule levels in nanograms per milliliter at presentation, median (IQR)     
   sL-selectin 771.5 (638.9, 922.4) 675.6 (641.5, 783.2)   0.111
   sP-selectin 85.7 (58.9, 97.9) 80.3 (60.2, 93.8)   0.3664
   sE-selectin 43.3 (33.4, 63.6) 32.8 (21.3, 45.7)   0.036a
   sICAM-1 208.2 (174.4, 259.3) 170.3 (100.2, 228.3)   0.019a
   sVCAM-1 709.7 (559.1, 938.8) 653.9 (502.0, 947.0)   0.353
Delayed cerebral infarction 4 1 0.609 1.000
Days of intensive care unit stay, median (IQR) 5 (2.8, 8.3) 2 (1.5,3.5)   ≤0.001a
Days of hospitalization, median (IQR) 15 (12.8, 22.3) 11 (7, 13)   ≤0.001a
  1. Values in the 'Poor outcome' and 'Good outcome' columns are presented as number of patients unless indicated otherwise. The following tests were used: Student t test (for age), Mann-Whitney U test (for laboratory data and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule at admission), and Fisher exact test (for gender and underlying diseases). a p0.05; IQR, interquartile range; sE-selectin, soluble endothelial selectin; sICAM-1, soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1; sL-selectin, soluble leukocyte selectin; sP-selectin, soluble platelet selectin; sVCAM-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1.