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Table 5 In your opinion, what best predicts an increase in cardiac output following volume expansion?

From: Hemodynamic monitoring and management in patients undergoing high risk surgery: a survey among North American and European anesthesiologists

  ASA Respondents (n = 190) ESA Respondents (n = 158)
Answer options Response percent Response percent
Transesophageal echocardiography 26.8% 17.7%
Cardiac output 21.1% 20.9%
Blood pressure 14.2% 5.7%
Pulse pressure variation or systolic pressure variation 12.1% 12.0%
Mixed venous saturation (ScvO2) 7.9% 5.7%
Stroke volume variation 5.8% 21.5%
Clinical experience 5.3% 3.2%
Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure 2.1% 3.2%
Central venous saturation (SvO2) 2.1% 1.9%
Central venous pressure 1.1% 3.2%
Global end diastolic volume 1.1% 3.8%
Plethysmographic waveform variations 0.5% 1.3%
  1. ASA, American society of anesthesiology respondents; ESA, European society of anesthesiology respondents.