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  1. In intensive care units (ICUs), patients experiencing post-extubation respiratory failure have poor outcomes. The use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) to treat post-extubation respiratory failure may increase ...

    Authors: Arnaud W. Thille, Grégoire Monseau, Rémi Coudroy, Mai-Anh Nay, Arnaud Gacouin, Maxens Decavèle, Romain Sonneville, François Beloncle, Christophe Girault, Laurence Dangers, Alexandre Lautrette, Quentin Levrat, Anahita Rouzé, Emmanuel Vivier, Jean-Baptiste Lascarrou, Jean-Damien Ricard…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:221

    Content type: Research

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  2. A correlation between unsuccessful noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and poor outcome has been suggested in de-novo Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF) patients. Consequently, it is of paramount importance to identify...

    Authors: Giovanna Mercurio, Sonia D’Arrigo, Rossana Moroni, Domenico Luca Grieco, Luca Salvatore Menga, Anna Romano, Maria Giuseppina Annetta, Maria Grazia Bocci, Davide Eleuteri, Giuseppe Bello, Luca Montini, Mariano Alberto Pennisi, Giorgio Conti and Massimo Antonelli

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:219

    Content type: Research

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  3. The viral load of asymptomatic SAR-COV-2 positive (ASAP) persons has been equal to that of symptomatic patients. On the other hand, there are no reports of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) outcomes i...

    Authors: Raffaele Marfella, Pasquale Paolisso, Celestino Sardu, Luciana Palomba, Nunzia D’Onofrio, Arturo Cesaro, Michelangela Barbieri, Maria Rosaria Rizzo, Ferdinando Carlo Sasso, Lucia Scisciola, Fabrizio Turriziani, Massimiliano Galdiero, Danilo Pignataro, Fabio Minicucci, Maria Consiglia Trotta, Michele D’Amico…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:217

    Content type: Research

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  4. Critically ill COVID-19 patients have pathophysiological lung features characterized by perfusion abnormalities. However, to date no study has evaluated whether the changes in the distribution of pulmonary gas...

    Authors: Lorenzo Ball, Chiara Robba, Jacob Herrmann, Sarah E. Gerard, Yi Xin, Maura Mandelli, Denise Battaglini, Iole Brunetti, Giuseppe Minetti, Sara Seitun, Giulio Bovio, Antonio Vena, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Matteo Bassetti, Patricia R. M. Rocco, Maurizio Cereda…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:214

    Content type: Research

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    The Letter to this article has been published in Critical Care 2021 25:352

  5. The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is highly variable between individuals, ranging from asymptomatic infection to critical disease with acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical...

    Authors: Inès Dufour, Alexis Werion, Leila Belkhir, Anastazja Wisniewska, Marie Perrot, Julien De Greef, Gregory Schmit, Jean Cyr Yombi, Xavier Wittebole, Pierre-François Laterre, Michel Jadoul, Ludovic Gérard and Johann Morelle

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:212

    Content type: Research

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  6. There are several reports of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We conducted a s...

    Authors: Kollengode Ramanathan, Kiran Shekar, Ryan Ruiyang Ling, Ryan P. Barbaro, Suei Nee Wong, Chuen Seng Tan, Bram Rochwerg, Shannon M. Fernando, Shinhiro Takeda, Graeme MacLaren, Eddy Fan and Daniel Brodie

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:211

    Content type: Research

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  7. The effect of awake prone positioning on intubation rates is not established. The aim of this trial was to investigate if a protocol for awake prone positioning reduces the rate of endotracheal intubation com...

    Authors: Jacob Rosén, Erik von Oelreich, Diddi Fors, Malin Jonsson Fagerlund, Knut Taxbro, Paul Skorup, Ludvig Eby, Francesca Campoccia Jalde, Niclas Johansson, Gustav Bergström and Peter Frykholm

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:209

    Content type: Research

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  8. Despite considerable progress, it remains unclear why some patients admitted for COVID-19 develop adverse outcomes while others recover spontaneously. Clues may lie with the predisposition to hypoxemia or unex...

    Authors: Ludovico Messineo, Elisa Perger, Luciano Corda, Simon A. Joosten, Francesco Fanfulla, Leonardo Pedroni, Philip I. Terrill, Carolina Lombardi, Andrew Wellman, Garun S. Hamilton, Atul Malhotra, Guido Vailati, Gianfranco Parati and Scott A. Sands

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:208

    Content type: Research

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  9. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication after cardiac surgery, and current strategies aimed at treating AKI have proven ineffective. Levosimendan, an inodilatating agent, has been shown ...

    Authors: Maria Tholén, Sven-Erik Ricksten and Lukas Lannemyr

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:207

    Content type: Research

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  10. Postoperative complications impact on early and long-term patients’ outcome. Appropriate perioperative fluid management is pivotal in this context; however, the most effective perioperative fluid management is...

    Authors: Antonio Messina, Chiara Robba, Lorenzo Calabrò, Daniel Zambelli, Francesca Iannuzzi, Edoardo Molinari, Silvia Scarano, Denise Battaglini, Marta Baggiani, Giacomo De Mattei, Laura Saderi, Giovanni Sotgiu, Paolo Pelosi and Maurizio Cecconi

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:205

    Content type: Research

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  11. Combining energy and protein targets during the acute phase of critical illness is challenging. Energy should be provided progressively to reach targets while avoiding overfeeding and ensuring sufficient prote...

    Authors: Pierre Singer, Itai Bendavid, Ilana BenArie, Liran Stadlander and Ilya Kagan

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:204

    Content type: Research

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  12. The mechanisms driving acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill COVID-19 patients are unclear. We collected kidney biopsies from COVID-19 AKI patients within 30 min after death in order to examine the histo...

    Authors: Meint Volbeda, Daniela Jou-Valencia, Marius C. van den Heuvel, Marjolein Knoester, Peter J. Zwiers, Janesh Pillay, Stefan P. Berger, Peter H. J. van der Voort, Jan G. Zijlstra, Matijs van Meurs and Jill Moser

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:202

    Content type: Research

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  13. β-adrenergic antagonists (BAAs) are used to treat cardiovascular disease such as ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, dysrhythmias, and hypertension. Poisoning from BAAs can lead to severe morbidi...

    Authors: Josée Bouchard, Greene Shepherd, Robert S. Hoffman, Sophie Gosselin, Darren M. Roberts, Yi Li, Thomas D. Nolin, Valéry Lavergne and Marc Ghannoum

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:201

    Content type: Research

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  14. Heterogeneous respiratory system static compliance (CRS) values and levels of hypoxemia in patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) requiring mechanical ventilation have been reported in previous small-...

    Authors: Gianluigi Li Bassi, Jacky Y. Suen, Heidi J. Dalton, Nicole White, Sally Shrapnel, Jonathon P. Fanning, Benoit Liquet, Samuel Hinton, Aapeli Vuorinen, Gareth Booth, Jonathan E. Millar, Simon Forsyth, Mauro Panigada, John Laffey, Daniel Brodie, Eddy Fan…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:199

    Content type: Research

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  15. Randomized trials have shown that trans-nasal evaporative cooling initiated during CPR (i.e. intra-arrest) effectively lower core body temperature in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. However, these tri...

    Authors: Fabio Silvio Taccone, Jacob Hollenberg, Sune Forsberg, Anatolij Truhlar, Martin Jonsson, Filippo Annoni, Dan Gryth, Mattias Ringh, Jerome Cuny, Hans-Jörg Busch, Jean-Louis Vincent, Leif Svensson and Per Nordberg

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:198

    Content type: Research

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  16. Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and requiring mechanical ventilation are at risk of ventilator-associated bacterial infections secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection. O...

    Authors: Gennaro De Pascale, Flavio De Maio, Simone Carelli, Giulia De Angelis, Margherita Cacaci, Luca Montini, Giuseppe Bello, Salvatore Lucio Cutuli, Gabriele Pintaudi, Eloisa Sofia Tanzarella, Rikardo Xhemalaj, Domenico Luca Grieco, Mario Tumbarello, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Brunella Posteraro and Massimo Antonelli

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:197

    Content type: Research

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  17. The evaluation of patient effort is pivotal during pressure support ventilation, but a non-invasive, continuous, quantitative method to assess patient inspiratory effort is still lacking. We hypothesized that ...

    Authors: Filippo Albani, Luigi Pisani, Gianni Ciabatti, Federica Fusina, Barbara Buizza, Anna Granato, Valeria Lippolis, Eros Aniballi, Francesco Murgolo, Antonio Rosano, Nicola Latronico, Massimo Antonelli, Salvatore Grasso and Giuseppe Natalini

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:196

    Content type: Research

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  18. There is a limited evidence for humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) use on inter-hospital transport. Despite this, its use during transport is increasing in children with respiratory distress worldwide....

    Authors: Shinya Miura, Kazue Yamaoka, Satoshi Miyata, Warwick Butt and Sile Smith

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:194

    Content type: Research

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  19. In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), non-ventilated perfused regions coexist with non-perfused ventilated regions within lungs. The number of unmatched regions might reflect ARDS severity and affect ...

    Authors: Elena Spinelli, Michael Kircher, Birgit Stender, Irene Ottaviani, Maria C. Basile, Ines Marongiu, Giulia Colussi, Giacomo Grasselli, Antonio Pesenti and Tommaso Mauri

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:192

    Content type: Research

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  20. Since the lockdown because of the pandemic, family members have been prohibited from visiting their loved ones in hospital. While it is clearly complicated to implement protocols for the admission of family me...

    Authors: Giovanni Mistraletti, Alberto Giannini, Giuseppe Gristina, Paolo Malacarne, Davide Mazzon, Elisabetta Cerutti, Alessandro Galazzi, Ilaria Giubbilo, Marco Vergano, Vladimiro Zagrebelsky, Luigi Riccioni, Giacomo Grasselli, Silvia Scelsi, Maurizio Cecconi and Flavia Petrini

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:191

    Content type: Viewpoint

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  21. Usefulness of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in weaning patients with non-hypercapnic hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (hARF) is unclear. The study aims to assess in patients with non-hypercapnic hARF, the e...

    Authors: Rosanna Vaschetto, Alessandro Pecere, Gavin D. Perkins, Dipesh Mistry, Gianmaria Cammarota, Federico Longhini, Miguel Ferrer, Renata Pletsch-Assunção, Michele Carron, Francesca Moretto, Haibo Qiu, Francesco Della Corte, Francesco Barone-Adesi and Paolo Navalesi

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:189

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Critical Care 2021 25:272

  22. In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), extravascular lung water index (EVLWi) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) measured by transpulmonary thermodilution reflect the degree of lung injur...

    Authors: Rui Shi, Christopher Lai, Jean-Louis Teboul, Martin Dres, Francesca Moretto, Nello De Vita, Tài Pham, Vincent Bonny, Julien Mayaux, Rosanna Vaschetto, Alexandra Beurton and Xavier Monnet

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:186

    Content type: Research

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  23. Persistent acute kidney injury (AKI) portends worse clinical outcomes and remains a therapeutic challenge for clinicians. A recent study found that urinary C–C motif chemokine ligand 14 (CCL14) can predict the...

    Authors: Sean M. Bagshaw, Ali Al-Khafaji, Antonio Artigas, Danielle Davison, Michael Haase, Matthew Lissauer, Kai Zacharowski, Lakhmir S. Chawla, Thomas Kwan, J. Patrick Kampf, Paul McPherson and John A. Kellum

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:185

    Content type: Research

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  24. Accurate biomarkers to diagnose infection are lacking. Studies reported good performance of pancreatic stone protein (PSP) to detect infection. The objective of the study was to determine the performance of PS...

    Authors: Josef Prazak, Irina Irincheeva, Martin J. Llewelyn, Daiana Stolz, Luis García de Guadiana Romualdo, Rolf Graf, Theresia Reding, Holger J. Klein, Philippe Eggimann and Yok-Ai Que

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:182

    Content type: Research

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  25. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are at higher risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). No study has evaluated the relationship between VAP and mortality in this population, or compared this relations...

    Authors: Saad Nseir, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Pedro Povoa, Matthieu Metzelard, Damien Du Cheyron, Fabien Lambiotte, Fabienne Tamion, Marie Labruyere, Demosthenes Makris, Claire Boulle Geronimi, Marc Pinetonde Chambrun, Martine Nyunga, Olivier Pouly, Bruno Mégarbane, Anastasia Saade, Gemma Gomà…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:177

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Critical Care 2021 25:284

  26. There are data suggesting that passive leg raising (PLR) improves hemodynamics during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This trial aimed to determine the effectiveness and safety of PLR during CPR in out-of...

    Authors: Youcef Azeli, Alfredo Bardají, Eneko Barbería, Vanesa Lopez-Madrid, Jordi Bladé-Creixenti, Laura Fernández-Sender, Gil Bonet, Elena Rica, Susana Álvarez, Alberto Fernández, Christer Axelsson and Maria F. Jiménez-Herrera

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:176

    Content type: Research

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  27. Uncertainty about the optimal respiratory support strategies in critically ill COVID-19 patients is widespread. While the risks and benefits of noninvasive techniques versus early invasive mechanical ventilati...

    Authors: Pedro D. Wendel Garcia, Hernán Aguirre-Bermeo, Philipp K. Buehler, Mario Alfaro-Farias, Bernd Yuen, Sascha David, Thomas Tschoellitsch, Tobias Wengenmayer, Anita Korsos, Alberto Fogagnolo, Gian-Reto Kleger, Maddalena A. Wu, Riccardo Colombo, Fabrizio Turrini, Antonella Potalivo, Emanuele Rezoagli…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:175

    Content type: Research

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  28. Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) with either extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or Impella has shown potential as a salvage therapy for patients with refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The ...

    Authors: Sivagowry Rasalingam Mørk, Carsten Stengaard, Louise Linde, Jacob Eifer Møller, Lisette Okkels Jensen, Henrik Schmidt, Lars Peter Riber, Jo Bønding Andreasen, Sisse Anette Thomassen, Helle Laugesen, Phillip Michael Freeman, Steffen Christensen, Jacob Raben Greisen, Mariann Tang, Peter Hasse Møller-Sørensen, Lene Holmvang…

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:174

    Content type: Research

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  29. Previous studies have found various incidences of right ventricular (RV) injury and its association with clinical outcome in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In this systematic review ...

    Authors: Ryota Sato, Siddharth Dugar, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Mary Schleicher, Patrick Collier, Saraschandra Vallabhajosyula and Abhijit Duggal

    Citation: Critical Care 2021 25:172

    Content type: Research

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