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Table 1 Patient characteristics among subphenotypes in the development cohort

From: Sepsis subphenotyping based on organ dysfunction trajectory

Characteristics Total (N = 4,678) DI (N = 1,174) RI (N = 1,932) DW (N = 960) RW (N = 612) P-value
Age, median (IQR) 65.9 [53.7–77.9] 67.25 [54.8–79.2] 65.3 [53.3–77.2] 66.9 [53.9–78.3] 64.5 [52.5–76.7] 0.204
Sex, No. (%)
 Male 2625 (56.1) 594 (50.6) 1100 (56.9) 548 (57.1) 383 (62.6) 0.081
 Female 2053 (43.9) 580 (49.4) 832 (43.1) 412 (42.9) 229 (37.4)  
Race, No. (%) 0.207
 White 3367 (71.9) 870 (74.1) 1398 (72.4) 670 (69.8) 429 (70.1)  
 Black 424 (9.1) 92 (7.8) 189 (9.8) 101(10.5) 42 (6.9)  
 Other 887 (18.9) 212 (18.1) 345 (17.9) 189 (19.7) 141(23.0)  
 Elixhauser index, median (IQR) 4.0 [0.0–9.0] 4.0 [0.0–9.0] 4.0 [0.0–9.0] 4.0 [0.0–9.0] 5.0 [0.0–10.0] 0.015
 Length stay, median (IQR) 2.8 [1.6–5.6] 2.9 [1.8–6.2] 2.4 [1.5–4.8] 2.9 [1.7–5.3] 2.9 [1.6–6.7]  < 0.001
 Mechanical ventilation at admission, No. (%) 1893 (40.5) 499 (42.5) 733 (37.9) 377 (39.3) 284 (46.4)  < 0.001
 Baseline SOFA, mean (SD) 4.96 (2.8) 4.0 (2.4) 5.5 (2.9) 5.2 (2.7) 4.5 (2.8)  < 0.001
ICU unit at admission, No. (%) 0.037
 SICU 771 (16.5) 185 (15.8) 341 (17.7) 135 (14.1) 110 (17.9)  
 CCU 443 (9.5) 117 (9.9) 167 (8.6) 94 (9.8) 65 (10.6)  
 TSICU 593 (12.7) 173 (14.7) 226 (11.7) 119 (12.4) 75 (12.3)  
 MICU 2611 (55.8) 634 (54.0) 1087 (56.3) 569 (59.3) 321 (52.5)  
 CSRU 260 (5.6) 65 (5.5) 111 (5.8) 43 (4.5) 41 (6.7)  
Admission location, No. (%) 0.196
 Transfer from other hospital 810 (17.3) 213 (18.1) 304 (15.7) 165 (17.2) 128 (20.9)  
 Emergency room 1497 (32.0) 355 (30.2) 628 (32.5) 328 (34.2) 186 (30.4)  
 Clinic referral 1985 (42.4) 493 (41.9) 847 (43.8) 396 (41.3) 249 (40.7)  
 Transfer from ward 4 (0.1) 2 (0.2) 1 (0.1) 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0)  
 Physician referral 367 (7.9) 106 (9.0) 145 (7.5) 69 (7.2) 47 (7.7)  
 Transfer from skilled nursing facility 15 (0.3) 5 (0.4) 7 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 2 (0.3)  
Infection item, No. (%)
 Central nervous system 56 (1.2) 10 (0.9) 27 (1.4) 8 (0.8) 11 (1.8) 0.189
 Intra-abdominal 880 (18.8) 230 (19.6) 363 (18.8) 172 (17.9) 115 (18.8) 0.808
 Pneumonia 1257 (26.9) 328 (27.9) 494 (25.6) 262 (27.3) 173 (28.3) 0.385
 Septicemia bacteremia 1587 (33.9) 359 (30.6) 717 (37.1) 300 (31.3) 211 (34.5)  < 0.001
 Skin soft tissue 276 (5.9) 60 (5.1) 140 (7.3) 42 (4.4) 34 (5.6) 0.008
 Urinary tract 1044 (22.3) 276 (23.5) 439 (22.7) 228 (23.8) 101 (16.5) 0.003
 Septic shock, No. (%) 635 (13.6) 148 (12.6) 299 (15.5) 101 (10.5) 87 (14.2) 0.002
  1. Infection items were defined based on ICD-9 code (see Additional file 1: Table S15)
  2. IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, SICU surgical ICU, CCU coronary care unit, TSICU thoracic surgery ICU, MICU medical ICU, CSRU cardiac surgery ICU, DI delayed improving, RI rapidly improving, DW delayed worsening, RW rapidly worsening
  3. P-value calculated by Chi-square test/Fisher’s exact test, or student’s t-test/Mann–Whitney test where appropriate