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Table 5 Univariate analysis—potential predictors for moral distress

From: Palliative care practice and moral distress during COVID-19 pandemic (PEOpLE-C19 study): a national, cross-sectional study in intensive care units in the Czech Republic

  N Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Sex 282   1.0000
 Female versus Male   1.000 (0.606–1.650)  
Profession of HCPs 282   0.9835
 Nurse versus Physician   1.005 (0.624–1.618)  
Age 282 0.998 (0.975–1.021) 0.8340
ICU experience 274 0.989 (0.965–1.014) 0.3863
Number of patients per HCP 270 1.072 (0.971–1.184) 0.1680
Type of hospital 268   0.2219
 Secondary hospital   Ref  
 Primary hospital   1.789 (0.848–3.773)  
 University (tertiary) hospital   1.456 (0.853–2.485)  
Form of EOLD communication with patient’s family 280   0.3728
 Family meeting   Ref  
 Telephone call   1.377 (0.817–2.323)  
 Videocall   0.953 (0.224–4.067)  
 Meeting with patient’s family was not performed   2.860 (0.723–11.312)  
Involvement of the patient's family regarding EOLD 281   0.3810
 Family/relatives were included in process, i.e. shared decisions   Ref  
 Family/relatives were fully responsible for the decision   2.308 (0.421–12.648)  
 Family/relatives were just informed about the decision;
 Patient was in comfort care despite family's disagreement
  1.762 (0.747–4.159)  
 Family/relatives were just informed about the decision;
 Patient was in comfort care if family/relatives did not disagree with the decision
  1.175 (0.661–2.087)  
 Family/relatives were not informed about decision   7.385 (0.880–61.994)  
 Cannot answer as I was not involved in the decision process   1.108 (0.487–2.519)  
Inappropriate care of patient, Yes versus No 280 1.804 (1.082–3.008) 0.0237
Opinion about inappropriate care of patient respected, Yes versus No 165 0.511 (0.261–1.001) 0.0504
Therapy goals were always clearly explained and defined, Yes versus No 281 0.297 (0.160–0.551) 0.0001
Agreement with statement that the deaths of COVID-19 patients were dignified, Yes versus No 277 0.203 (0.114–0.359)  < .0001
Resource scarcity situation experience, Yes versus No 115 1.735 (0.807–3.732) 0.1585
  1. CI confidence interval, HCPs health care providers, ICU intensive care unit, COVID-19 coronavirus disease, EOLD end-of-life decision