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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and outcomes between patients with treatment failure and treatment success

From: Lung ultrasound response to awake prone positioning predicts the need for intubation in patients with COVID-19 induced acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: an observational study

Variable Treatment failure (n = 20) Treatment success (n = 51) p
Age—years 46 (40–53) 40 (35–45) 0.01
Female sex—no. (%) 7 (35) 21 (41) 0.63
Body mass index—kg/m2 30.9 (28.7–32.6) 30.4 (29.2–32.3) 0.81
Days from COVID confirmation 4.0 (2.5–6.0) 3.0 (2.0–4.0) 0.07
Comorbidities—no. (%)    
 Pulmonary disease 3 (15) 1 (2) 0.06
 Chronic kidney disease 3 (15) 2 (4) 0.10
 Diabetes 3 (15) 3 (6) 0.21
 Hypertension 4 (20) 3 (6) 0.07
 Cardiovascular disease 0 5 (10) 0.31
Time from HFNC to APP initiation—hours 6.0 (5.0–7.0) 6.2 (5.0–7.8) 0.27
Before the first APP session    
 Heart rate—beats/min 91 (82–99) 97 (87–105) 0.29
 Respiratory rate—breaths/min 20 (18–23) 20 (18–22) 0.81
 Mean arterial pressure—mmHg 85 (76–89) 82 (76–87) 0.30
 SpO2% 93 (91–96) 94 (92–97) 0.31
 HFNC flow settings—L/min* 40 (40–40) 40 (40–40) 0.51
 FIO2 1.0 (0.8–1.0) 0.9 (0.8–0.9) 0.28
 SpO2:FIO2 107 (101–121) 92 (92–118) 0.09
 ROX index 5.2 (4.3–6.2) 5.5 (4.7–6.6) 0.50
 LUS score 20 (18–24) 20 (19–23) 0.74
Management    
 Mean daily APP duration at first 3 days—hr/day 9.8 (8.9–12.1) 11.7 (8.7–16.5) 0.18
 Dexamethasone—no. (%) 20 (100) 51 (100) 1.0
 IL-6 modulators—no. (%) 4 (20) 6 (12) 0.45
Outcomes    
 ICU length of stay—days 13 (9–16) 7 (6–9) 0.02
 Hospital length of stay—days 19 (13–24) 11 (9–12)  < 0.001
 Mortality—no. (%) 8 (40) 0  < 0.001
  1. Medians with interquartile ranges are in parentheses. APP awake prone positioning; HFNC high-flow nasal cannula; SpO2 saturation of pulse oximetry; FIO2 fraction of inspired oxygen; ROX SpO2:FIO2/respiratory rate
  2. Body-mass index is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters
  3. *HFNC was provided using Precision Flow Hi-VNI™ (Vapotherm, Exeter, NH) with maximum flow of 40 L/min