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Table 3 Univariate comparison of potential risk factors for CAPA in cases and controls

From: Corticosteroids as risk factor for COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis in intensive care patients

Parameters Total Cohort investigated (n = 215)
Control (n = 168) Cases (n = 47) p value
Parameters on admission
Age (years) 65.5 (IQR 55.5–75.1) 67.4 (IQR 62.4–75.9) 0.105
Male gender 75% (n = 126) 87% (n = 41) 0.075
BMI (kg/m2) 29 (IQR 25.5–32) 30 (IQR 26–34) 0.499
SAPS 41 (IQR 32–48) 51 (IQR 44–59)  < 0.001
Lymphcytes/nl 0.83 (IQR 0.56–1.22) 0.77 (IQR 0.38–1.06) 0.112
Neutrophils/nl 7.94 (IQR 5.51–11.13) 8.14 (IQR 5.55–11.94) 0.781
IL-6 (ng/l) 110 (IQR 34.3–315.4) 91.65 (IQR 58.3–215) 0.868
CRP (mg/l) 142.3 (IQR 68.9–234.3) 160.8 (IQR 108.6–270.9) 0.167
PCT (µg/l) 0.38 (IQR 0.15–1.49) 0.71 (IQR 0.22–2) 0.169
Corticosteroids on admission 8% (n = 10) 21% (n = 24)  < 0.001
Admission from external ICU 42% (n = 71) 21% (n = 24) 0.283
ICU treatment parameters
Number of microbiological samples for Aspergillus spp. 3 (IQR 0–7) 7 (IQR 5–11) 0.000
Length of ICU stay before onset of CAPA (days) Not applicable 8 (IQR 4–14) Not applicable
Dexamethasone therapy 76.2% (n = 128) 87.2% (n = 41) 0.103
Cortisol cumulative dose (mg) 1.470 (390–2.670) 900 (200–2.200) 0.154
Corticosteroid treatment (days) 7 (IQR 2–12) 6 (IQR 2–10) 0.298
Invasive ventilation (days) 12 (IQR 1–32) 23 (IQR 16–38)  < 0.001
Days without mechanical ventilation 1 (IQR 0–6) 1 (IQR 0–5) 0.171
Comorbidities
Charlson Comorbidity Index 5 (IQR 3–7) 6 (IQR 5–8) 0.015
Peptic ulcer 2% (n = 4) 4% (n = 2) 0.490
Rheumatoid disease 4% (n = 7) 4% (n = 2) 0.979
Heart disease 24% (n = 41) 15% (n = 7) 0.166
Vascular disease 15% (n = 25) 17% (n = 8) 0.719
Diabetes 31% (52) 32% (n = 15) 0.900
Liver disease 20% (n = 33) 23% (n = 11) 0.572
Renal disease 65% (n = 109) 87% (n = 41) 0.003
Cancer 5% (n = 9) 11% (n = 5) 0.195
AIDS/HIV 0 (n = 0) 0 (n = 0) n.s
Neurological disease 8% (n = 14) 6% (n = 3) 0.661
Lung disease 29% (n = 49) 40% (n = 19) 0.142
  1. P-value ≤ 0.05 was defined as statistically significant and presented as bold
  2. CAPA, COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis; LOS, length of stay; BMI, body mass index; ICU, intensive care unit; PCT, procalcitonin; SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment; SAPS, simplified acute physiology score; IL-6, interleukine-6; CRP, C-reactive protein; IQR, inter quartile range