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Table 3 Study outcomes

From: Sildenafil for treating patients with COVID-19 and perfusion mismatch: a pilot randomized trial

Outcome Sildenafil group (n = 20) Placebo group (n = 20) Total (n = 40) P value
Clinical outcomes
In-hospital mortality (n, %) 0 (0%) 1 (5.0%) 1 (2.5%) > 0.99a
Intensive care unit (ICU) admission (n, %) 3 (15%) 5 (25%) 8 (20%) 0.59a
Initiation of high-flow nasal cannula (n, %) 3 (15%) 3 (15%) 6 (15%) 0.95a
Initiation of invasive mechanical ventilation (n, %) 0 (0%) 4 (20%) 4 (10%) 0.04a
Median duration of mechanical ventilation (days) (IQR) 21 (8.5–36.5)
Median ICU stay (days) (IQR) 7 (7–8) 15 (7–42) 7.5 (7–28.5) 0.46b
Median hospital stay (days) (IQR) 9 (7–12) 12 (9–21) 11 (8–14) 0.04c
Laboratory outcomes
Mean PaO2/FiO2 ratio one hour after treatment administration (SD) 274 (230–338) 267 (216–310) 275 (230–314) 0.56c
Mean A-a gradient 1 h after treatment administration (SD) 81.6 (44–124) 104 (44–149) 91.5 (32.7–175) 0.56c
Adverse events
Headache (n, %) 2 (10%) 5 (25%) 7 (17.5%) 0.41d
Dizziness (n, %) 4 (20%) 2 (10%) 6 (15%) 0.66d
Blurred vision (n, %) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Flushing (n, %) 2 (10%) 0 (0%) 2 (5%) 0.49d
Nausea (n, %) 0 (0%) 4 (20%) 4 (10%) 0.11d
Nasal congestion (n, %) 3 (15%) 2 (10%) 5 (12.5%) > 0.99d
Other (n, %) 1 (5%) 0 (0%) 1 (2.5%) > 0.99d
  1. aLogrank statistic
  2. bMann–Whitney rank sum test
  3. cStudent's T test
  4. dFisher's exact test
  5. SD, standard deviation; IQR, interquartile range