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Table 2 Risk-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for in-hospital mortality associated with administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics in 1 h

From: Time-to-antibiotics and clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis and septic shock: a prospective nationwide multicenter cohort study

In-hospital mortality Administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics in 1 h p-value
No Yes
OR (95% CI)*
All participants (n = 3035)
  Overall Reference 0.78 (0.61–0.99) 0.046
  Without septic shock Reference 0.85 (0.641.15) 0.300
  With septic shock Reference 0.66 (0.44–0.99) 0.049
Landmark analysis (N = 3018)
  Overall Reference 0.78 (0.61–0.99) 0.046
  Without septic shock Reference 0.86 (0.641.15) 0.310
  With septic shock Reference 0.65 (0.43–0.98) 0.042
  1. Bold values indicate parameters that are statistically significant
  2. * To control for other potential confounding factors, age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index score (< 9 vs. ≥ 9), history of antibiotic prescription or hospitalization for two or more days within the past 90 days before presenting to the emergency department, recognition of sepsis by physicians in the emergency department, Clinical Frailty Scale score, initial SOFA score, diagnosis (sepsis or septic shock), site of infection (pulmonary vs. abdominal), identification of pathogen, admission/transfer to ICU were adjusted