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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants according to time-to-antibiotics < 1 h or > 1 h (n = 3035)

From: Time-to-antibiotics and clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis and septic shock: a prospective nationwide multicenter cohort study

Variables Administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics in 1 h p-value
No (n = 2523) Yes (n = 512)
Age, years 74 (63–81) 75 (65–81) 0.12
Sex, male 1448 (57.4) 298 (58.2) 0.74
Body mass index, kg/m2 21.8 (4.2) 22.0 (4.1) 0.41
Comorbidity
  Diabetes mellitus 966 (38.2) 200 (39.0) 0.75
  History of myocardial infarction 259 (10.3) 51 (9.9) 0.83
  Congestive heart failure 190 (7.5) 30 (5.9) 0.18
  Chronic neurological disease 495 (19.6) 88 (17.2) 0.20
  Chronic liver disease 280 (11.1) 51 (9.9) 0.68
  Chronic kidney disease 419 (16.6) 73 (14.2) 0.19
  Connective tissue disease 63 (2.5) 13 (2.5) 0.96
  Solid malignant tumors 474 (18.8) 99 (19.3) 0.78
Charlson comorbidity index score 5 (4–7) 5 (4–7) 0.14
  ≥ 9 336 (13.2) 70 (13.7) 0.83
History of antibiotic prescription within the past 90 days     < 0.01
  No 2070 (82.1) 390 (76.2)  
  Yes 364 (14.4) 103 (20.1)  
  Unknown 89 (3.5) 19 (3.7)  
Hospitalization for two or more days within the past 90 days 1043 (41.3) 208 (40.6) 0.77
Clinical Frailty Scale    0.11
  Very fit 99 (3.9) 27 (5.3)  
  Well 186 (7.4) 36 (7)  
  Managing well 379 (15) 54 (10.5)  
  Vulnerable 393 (15.6) 79 (15.4)  
  Mildly frail 264 (10.5) 50 (9.8)  
  Moderately frail 328 (13) 60 (11.7)  
  Severely frail 479 (19) 115 (22.5)  
  Very severely frail 380 (15.1) 86 (16.8)  
  Terminally ill 15 (0.6) 5 (1)  
Initial SOFA score 5 (4–8) 6 (4–9)  < 0.01
Septic shock 437 (17.3) 164 (32.0)  < 0.01
Recognition of sepsis by physicians in the emergency department 943 (37.4) 234 (45.7)  < 0.01
Site of infection*
  Respiratory 1199 (47.5) 259 (50.6) 0.21
  Abdominal 660 (26.2) 143 (27.9) 0.41
  Urinary 131 (5.2) 31 (6.1) 0.43
  Skin/soft tissue 90 (3.6) 13 (2.5) 0.24
Type of infection    0.16
  Community 1673 (66.3) 324 (63.3)  
  Nursing home-acquired 179 (7.1) 29 (5.7)  
  Nursing hospital-acquired 331 (13.1) 75 (14.6)  
  Hospital-acquired 340 (13.5) 84 (16.4)  
Identification of pathogen 1380 (54.7) 308 (60.2) 0.02
ICU admission/transfer 1205 (47.8) 288 (56.3)  < 0.01
Length of hospital stay, days 12 (6–20) 11 (6–19.5) 0.35
  1. Bold values indicate parameters that are statistically significant
  2. Data are presented as mean (SD), median (interquartile range), or number (%)
  3. ER, emergency room; ICU, intensive care unit; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment
  4. *Mutually nonexclusive