Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparisons of clinical characteristics and outcomes among all SCAP patients

From: Clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with mortality in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Variables Overall (n = 3786) SCAP patients without T2DM (n = 2524) SCAP patients with T2DM (n = 1262) P value
Demographic characteristics
 Age (years old) 66.00 (53.00, 76.00) 66.00 (53.00, 76.00) 66.00 (53.00, 76.00) 0.934
 Sex: male (%) 2438 (64.4) 1636 (64.8) 802 (63.5) 0.464
Comorbidities
 Cancer (%) 679 (17.9) 449 (17.8) 230 (18.2) 0.776
 Chronic hematological diseases (%) 71 (1.9) 45 (1.8) 26 (2.1) 0.641
 Chronic hepatic diseases (%) 99 (2.6) 62 (2.5) 37 (2.9) 0.45
 Chronic renal diseases (%) 251 (6.6) 161 (6.4) 90 (7.1) 0.42
 Chronic cardiovascular diseases (%) 606 (16) 394 (15.6) 212 (16.8) 0.37
 Hypertension (%) 1050 (27.7) 704 (27.9) 346 (27.4) 0.788
 Chronic pulmonary diseases (%) 919 (24.3) 597 (23.7) 322 (25.5) 0.223
 Chronic cerebrovascular diseases (%) 100 (2.6) 64 (2.5) 36 (2.9) 0.641
Primary symptoms
 Fever (%) 856 (22.6) 580 (23.0) 276 (21.9) 0.467
 Cough (%) 1233 (32.6) 847 (33.6) 386 (30.6) 0.071
 Expectoration (%) 427 (11.3) 300 (11.9) 127 (10.1) 0.106
 Dyspnea (%) 731 (19.3) 510 (20.2) 221 (17.5) 0.053
 Coma (%) 751 (19.8) 528 (20.9) 223 (17.7) 0.02
 Insanity (%) 73 (1.9) 54 (2.1) 19 (1.5) 0.226
 Chest pain (%) 94 (2.5) 65 (2.6) 29 (2.3) 0.685
Vital signs on admission
 Respiratory rate (breath/min) 18.00 (15.00, 23.00) 18.00 (14.00, 22.00) 19.00 (16.00, 23.00) < 0.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 130.00 (111, 148) 128.00 (113.25, 146) 130.00 (110, 148) 0.238
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 72.00 (61.00, 85.00) 72.00 (61.00, 85.00) 73.00 (62.25, 83.00) 0.843
 Temperature (°C) 36.60 (36.30, 37.20) 36.60 (36.30, 37.10) 36.80 (36.30, 37.40) < 0.001
 Heart rate (beat/min) 96.00 (81.00, 110) 96.00 (80.00, 108.00) 98.00 (87.00, 115.00) < 0.001
Laboratory examinations
 Glucose (mmol/L) 7.36 (5.95, 10.86) 6.84 (5.50, 7.93) 12.61 (10.29, 15.30) < 0.001
 HbA1c (%) 5.99 (4.76, 8.69) 5.40 (4.40, 6.34) 10.08 (8.23, 12.24) < 0.001
 CRP (mg/L) 64.80 (18.5, 122.00) 61.5 (17.40, 118) 70.2 (21.9, 127) 0.002
 Procalcitonin (µg/L) 0.33 (0.14, 1.08) 0.33 (0.13, 0.89) 0.35 (0.16, 1.60) < 0.001
 D-dimer (mg/L) 4.12 (2.17, 8.79) 4.12 (2.15, 8.33) 4.25 (2.20, 9.63) 0.012
 Lactate (mmol/L) 1.40 (1.10, 2.20) 1.40 (1, 2.1) 1.60 (1.10, 2.40) < 0.001
 BNP (pg/mL) 1099 (329,3902) 978 (290, 3570) 1339 (397, 5067) < 0.001
 APTT (s) 31.80 (27.60, 38.40) 31.60 (27.40, 37.80) 32.40 (28.02, 39.48) 0.004
 PT (s) 12.90 (11.90, 14.50) 12.80 (11.80, 14.30) 13.20 (12.10, 14.90) < 0.001
 Fibrinogen (g/L) 3.57 (2.64, 4.77) 3.52 (2.60, 4.64) 3.82 (2.77, 4.96) < 0.001
 INR 1.12 (1.03, 1.27) 1.11 (1.02, 1.25) 1.15 (1.05, 1.29) < 0.001
 White blood cell (×109/L) 9.77 (6.72, 13.81) 9.30 (6.55, 13.31) 10.77 (7.14, 14.69) < 0.001
 Hemoglobin (g/L) 109.00 (89.00, 129) 111.00 (90.00, 131) 106.00 (86.00, 125) < 0.001
 Neutrophil (×109/L) 7.81 (5.01, 11.54) 7.70 (5.01, 11.31) 8.06 (5.03, 12.18) 0.009
 Lymphocyte (×109/L) 0.90 (0.56, 1.35) 0.90 (0.57, 1.34) 0.90 (0.55, 1.35) 0.995
 Platelet (×109/L) 175.00 (111, 254) 178 (114, 256) 165 (103, 252) 0.021
 Monocyte (×109/L) 0.42 (0.27, 0.63) 0.43 (0.28, 0.63) 0.40 (0.23, 0.62) 0.001
 ALT (IU/L) 22.00 (14.00, 43.00) 21.50 (13.00, 41.00) 23.00 (14.00, 45.00) 0.012
 AST (IU/L) 29.00 (20.00, 51.00) 28.00 (20.00, 49.00) 30.00 (20.00, 55.00) 0.045
 Creatinine (µmol/L) 73.00 (55, 107.25) 71.00 (54.00, 98.00) 79.00 (58.00, 133.75) < 0.001
 Uric acid (µmol/L) 236.00 (148, 343) 232.80 (144, 336) 241.00 (156, 364) 0.002
 Albumin (g/L) 32.10 (28.00, 37.58) 32.7 (28.40, 38.50) 30.8 (27.30, 35.77) < 0.001
 Globulin (g/L) 25.20 (21.60, 29.00) 25.30 (21.70, 29.02) 25.00 (21.50, 28.90) 0.255
 BUN (mmol/L) 7.10 (5.00, 11.40) 6.68 (4.71, 10.17) 8.55 (5.56, 14.65) < 0.001
 Total bilirubin (µmol/L) 11.80 (7.90, 17.80) 12.2 (8.2, 18.2) 10.8 (7.12, 16.7) < 0.001
 Direct bilirubin (µmol/L) 5.50 (3.50, 9.00) 5.40 (3.50, 9.00) 5.60 (3.50, 8.90) 0.647
Clinical outcomes
 ICU LOS (days) 12.00 (6.00, 23.00) 12.00 (5.00, 22.00) 13.00 (6.00, 24.00) 0.016
 Hospital LOS (days) 21.00 (12.00, 33.00) 21.00 (13.00, 32.00) 20.50 (11.00, 34.00) 0.168
 Need for CPR during hospitalization (%) 120 (3.2) 72 (2.9) 48 (3.8) 0.115
 Death within 14 days (%) 461  (12.2) 272 (10.8) 189 (15) < 0.001
 Death within 30 days (%) 898 (23.7) 574 (22.7) 324 (25.7) 0.046
 ICU mortality (%) 1058 (27.9) 669 (26.5) 389 (30.8) 0.005
 Hospital mortality (%) 1226 (32.4) 782 (31.0) 444 (35.2) 0.009
  1. Data are shown as median with interquartile range (IQR) for continuous variables or number with percentage for categorical variables
  2. SCAP Severe community-acquired pneumonia, n numbers, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, CRP C-reactive protein, BNP brain natriuretic peptide, APTT activated partial thromboplastin time, PT prothrombin time, INR international normalized ratio, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, BUN blood urea nitrogen, ICU intensive care unit, LOS length of stay, CPR cardiac pulmonary resuscitation