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Table 1 Characteristics and outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis

From: Changes in carbon dioxide production and oxygen uptake evaluated using indirect calorimetry in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis

  Total Survivors Non-survivors p value
N = 34 N = 26 N = 8
Age, y 73 (51.8–81.0) 65.5 (46.0–78.5) 81 (72.8–84.0) 0.023
Male sex 24 (70.6) 19 (73.1) 5 (62.5) 0.666
BMI, kg/m2 20.9 (17.1–25.2) 21.5 (17.1–25.8) 19.7 (15.7–23.7) 0.372
Clinical severity        
APACHE II score 17 (12.0–22.0) 15 (11.0–21.0) 21.5 (17.0–24.5) 0.046
SOFA score 9 (5.8–12.0) 7.5 (5.0–11.3) 11 (8.3–13.0) 0.154
Catecholamine use        
Noradrenalin 23 (67.6) 17 (65.4) 6 (75) 1
Dopamine 1 (2.9) 1 (3.8) 0 (0) 1
Dobutamine 3 (8.8) 3 (11.5) 0 (0) 1
Vasopressin 9 (26.5) 6 (23.1) 3 (37.5) 0.649
Catecholamine index 19 (0.0–30.0) 15 (0.0–40.0) 27.5 (5.0–30.0) 0.605
Induction medication        
Fentanyl 33 (97.1) 26 (100) 7 (87.5) 0.235
Propofol 22 (64.7) 19 (73.1) 3 (37.5) 0.098
Midazolam 12 (35.3) 8 (30.8) 4 (50) 0.41
Sedation        
Fentanyl 32 (94.1) 26 (100) 6 (75) 0.05
Propofol 26 (76.5) 20 (76.9) 6 (75) 1
Midazolam 1 (2.9) 1 (3.8) 0 (0) 1
Dexmedetomidine 9 (26.5) 8 (30.8) 1 (12.5) 0.403
RASS (during IC measurement) − 4 (− 4 to − 3) − 4 (− 4 to − 3) − 4 (− 4 to − 3) 0.946
CRRT 2 (5.8) 1 (3.8) 1 (12.5) 0.421
Past history        
Hypertension 14 (41.2) 11 (42.3) 3 (37.5) 1
Diabetes mellitus 13 (38.2) 11 (42.3) 2 (25) 0.444
Ischemic heart disease 3 (8.8) 2 (7.7) 1 (12.5) 1
Stroke 4 (11.8) 4 (15.4) 0 (0) 0.552
COPD 6 (17.6) 4 (15.4) 2 (25) 0.609
Chronic liver disease 4 (11.8) 4 (15.4) 0 (0) 0.552
CKD 5 (14.7) 3 (11.5) 2 (25) 0.57
Cancer 10 (29.4) 8 (30.8) 2 (25) 1
Source of infection        
Respiratory 22 (64.7) 16 (61.5) 6 (75) 0.681
Urinary 3 (8.8) 2 (7.7) 1 (12.5) 1
Biliary 4 (11.8) 3 (11.5) 1 (12.5) 1
Other 5 (14.7) 5 (19.2) 0 (0) 0.309
Positive culture 10 (29.4) 8 (30.8) 2 (25) 1
Ventilator        
Assist/control mode 21 (61.8) 17 (65.4) 4 (50) 0.68
FIO2, % 40 (35.0–60.0) 40 (35.0–52.5) 40 (30.0–67.5) 0.95
PEEP, cmH2O 8 (5.0–8.0) 8 (5.0–8.0) 6.5 (5.0–9.5) 0.641
Driving pressure, cmH2O 14 (11.5–15.3) 14 (10.0–15.3) 13.5 (12.0–17.3) 0.486
Thiamine administration 26 (76.5) 20 (76.9) 6 (75) 1
Blood gas analysis (at the time of intubation)        
pH 7.35 (7.275–7.424) 7.348 (7.244–7.401) 7.359 (7.299–7.440) 0.73
PaO2, mmHg 91.2 (75.3–151.0) 91.2 (78.7–159.3) 96.3 (56.9–107.5) 0.598
PaCO2, mmHg 43.5 (33.8–57.7) 42.7 (33.8–57.7) 49.8 (29.8–66.3) 0.612
HCO3, mmol/L 22.4 (19.2–25.6) 22.2 (19.5–25.1) 27.2 (19.0–34.2) 0.31
Lactate, mmol/L 1.8 (1.0–4.0) 2.3 (1.2–4.0) 1.5 (1.0–9.4) 0.871
Hemoglobin, g/dL 10.9 (9.0–12.5) 11.1 (10.0–12.7) 8.9 (8.5–11.8) 0.167
Blood gas analysis (after IC measurement)        
pH 7.372 (7.312–7.402) 7.375 (7.306–7.404) 7.356 (7.335–7.397) 0.67
PaO2, mmHg 94.3 (74.0–116.3) 104 (78.3–120.3 73.5 (67.4–89.9) 0.009
PaCO2, mmHg 40.1 (34.5–47.0) 39.5 (34.5–43.3) 47.2 (30.6–52.4) 0.383
HCO3, mmol/L 23.4 (20.5–24.8) 23.4 (20.5–24.3) 25 (16.0–31.2) 0.626
Lactate, mmol/L 1.7 (1.1–2.6) 1.5 (1.1–2.5) 2 (1.3–2.6) 0.29
Hemoglobin, g/dL 9.7 (8.8–11.2) 10.4 (9.1–11.3) 9.1 (8.3–10.3) 0.161
Lactate %change, %/h − 0.98 (− 2.61 to 2.29) − 1.6 (− 2.82 to 1.74) 2.64 (− 0.94 to 9.40) 0.04
Vital sign (initial during IC measurement)        
Heart rate, beat/minute 90.1 (71.2–103.1) 91.3 (69.6–103.4) 89.7 (73.5–95.7) 0.839
Mean arterial pressure, mmHg 76.7 (64.9–88.9) 75.7 (60.5–88.9) 83.6 (66.6–91.5) 0.361
Body temperature, °C 37.2 (36.8–38.0) 37.6 (36.7–38.2) 37.2 (36.8–37.2) 0.3
Vital sign (last during IC measurement)        
Heart rate, beat/minute 91.7 (73.6–101.8) 87.4 (67.0–102.7) 91.8 (75.3–96.7) 0.935
Mean arterial pressure, mmHg 80.7 (68.7–91.7) 80.7 (69.2–94.3) 80.7 (62.4–89.2) 0.503
Body temperature, °C 37.3 (36.6–37.7) 37.5 (36.7–38.0) 36.8 (36.3–37.3) 0.074
  1. Summary statistics are reported as No. (%) or medians (interquartile range)
  2. APACHE II, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II; BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRRT, continuous renal replacement therapy; FIO2, fraction of inspired oxygen; IC, indirect calorimetry; IQR, interquartile range; RASS, Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment