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Table 1 Characteristics, management and outcome for levosimendan cases and non-levosimendan controls

From: Effects of levosimendan on occurrence of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case–control study

  Cases (“Levo”)a
(n = 18)
Controlsb
(n = 36)
P-value Odds-Ratio
Patients characteristics
Age—median (IQR)—years 61 (50–70) 61,5 (52–68) 0.63  
Female—No (%) 15 (83.3) 30 (83.3) 1.00  
Arterial hypertension—No (%) 6 (33.3) 17 (47.2) 0.39  
Smoking—No (%) 10 (55.6) 10 (27.8) 0.07  
Diabetes—No (%) 0 (0) 1 (2.8) 1.00  
Stroke history—No (%) 2 (11.1) 4 (11.1) 1.00  
SAPS 2—median (IQR) 60 (43; 65) 49 (40; 57) 0.15  
SOFA—median (IQR) 8 (7; 11) 6 (2; 9) 0.03  
Characteristic of SAH
WFNS grade—median (IQR) 5 (4; 5) 4 (4; 5) 0.43  
Fischer grade—median (IQR) 4 (4; 4) 4 (4; 4) 0.48  
Coiling—No (%) 16 (88.9) 32 (88.9) 1.00  
External ventricular drainage—No (%) 7 (38.9) 23 (63.9) 0.09  
Decompressive craniectomy—No (%) 2 (11.1) 3 (8.3) 1.00  
Cardiac impairmentc
Cardiac troponin peak—median (IQR)—ng/L 3999
(2210; 7382)
821
(40; 4532)
0.007  
BNP peak—median (IQR)—ng/L 1122
(762; 1718)
138
(65; 937)
0.001  
Outcome
Cerebral vasospasm—No (%) 5 (27.8) 24 (66.7) 0.009 0.199
[0.0443; 0.766]
Delayed cerebral ischemia—No (%) 0 (0) 7 (19.4) 0.08 NA
MRS at 3 months ≤ 3—No (%) 11 (61.1) 18 (50) 0.57 1.558
[0.4331; 5.922]
Death at 3 months—No (%) 1 (5.6) 9 (25) 0.14 0.181
[0.004; 1.516]
  1. Characteristics of patients are compared with Mann–Whitney U test for quantitative variables and Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables
  2. BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; MRS, modified Rankin score; NA, not available; SAPS2, Simplified Acute Physiology Score 2; SOFA, Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment; WFNS, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies
  3. aNo missing data
  4. bMissing data: arterial hypertension status for one patient, smoking status for one patient, diabetes status for one patient, stroke history for one patient, SOFA for six patients, type of aneurysmal securization for one patient, cardiac troponin peak for four patients, BNP peak for ten patients, use of norepinephrine for two patients