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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with cardiogenic shock stratified by different time periods

From: Cardiogenic shock in Taiwan from 2003 to 2017 (CSiT-15 study)

  Overall 2003–2005 2006–2008 2009–2011 2012–2014 2015–2017 Trend p
N = 64 049 N = 9657 N = 11 677 N = 13 686 N = 14 342 N = 14 687
Demographics
Age (years) 70.6 ± 14.8 70.3 ± 14.0 70.5 ± 14.5 70.9 ± 14.7 70.9 ± 15.2 70.3 ± 15.2  < 0.0001
Male sex (%) 39 706 (62%) 5887 (61%) 7141 (61.2%) 8448 (61.7%) 8969 (62.5%) 9261 (63.1%)  < 0.0001
History, n (%)
Congestive heart failure 26 310 (41.1%) 3588 (37.2%) 4553 (39%) 5747 (42%) 6138 (42.8%) 6284 (42.8%)  < 0.0001
Hypertension 30 941 (48.3%) 4025 (41.7%) 5318 (45.5%) 6760 (49.4%) 7349 (51.2%) 7489 (51%)  < 0.0001
Diabetes mellitus 22 503 (35.1%) 3153 (32.6%) 4089 (35%) 5005 (36.6%) 5133 (35.8%) 5123 (34.9%) 0.001
Peripheral arterial disease 780 (1.2%) 69 (0.7%) 112 (1%) 143 (1%) 202 (1.4%) 254 (1.7%)  < 0.0001
Dyslipidemia 9604 (15%) 942 (9.8%) 1476 (12.6%) 1918 (14%) 2389 (16.7%) 2897 (19.6%)  < 0.0001
Coronary artery disease 29 960 (46.8%) 4229 (43.8%) 5208 (44.6%) 6272 (45.8%) 6973 (48.6%) 7278 (49.6%)  < 0.0001
Prior myocardial infarction 28 885 (45.1%) 4117 (43.3%) 5049 (43.2%) 6233 (45.5%) 6551 (45.7%) 6875 (46.8%)  < 0.0001
Renal failure 5561 (8.7%) 550 (5.7%) 858 (7.3%) 1170 (8.5%) 1431 (10%) 1552 (10.6%)  < 0.0001
Stroke 11 091 (17.3%) 1749 (18.1%) 2217 (19%) 2439 (17.8%) 2485 (17.3%) 2201 (15%)  < 0.0001
Malignancy 6214 (9.7%) 850 (8.8%) 1099 (9.4%) 1336 (9.8%) 1479 (10.3%) 1450 (9.9%) 0.0004
Atrial fibrillation 9490 (14.8%) 1279 (13.2%) 1747 (15%) 2024 (14.8%) 2183 (15.2%) 2257 (15.4%)  < 0.0001
Hospital level, n (%)
Medical center 22 499 (35.1%) 3359 (34.8%) 4022 (34.4%) 4960 (36.2%) 5019 (35%) 5139 (35%) 0.3001
Regional hospital 32 052 (50%) 4420 (45.8%) 5702 (48.8%) 6790 (49.6%) 7420 (51.7%) 7720 (52.6%)  < 0.0001
District hospital 9498 (14.8%) 1878 (19.4%) 1953 (16.7%) 1936 (14.1%) 1903 (13.3%) 1828 (12.4%)  < 0.0001
CS conditions, n (%)
Cardiac arrest 21 095 (32.9%) 3525 (36.5%) 4222 (36.2%) 4597 (33.6%) 4479 (31.2%) 4272 (29.1%)  < 0.0001
Acute myocardial infarction 25 906 (40.4%) 3757 (38.9%) 4524 (38.7%) 5580 (40.8%) 5805 (40.5%) 6240 (42.5%)  < 0.0001
STEMI 9522 (14.9%) 1808 (18.7%) 1726 (14.8%) 1964 (14.4%) 1906 (13.3%) 2118 (14.4%)  < 0.0001
NSTEMI 16 384 (25.6%) 1949 (20.2%) 2798 (24%) 3616 (26.4%) 3899 (27.2%) 4122 (28.1%)  < 0.0001
Cardiac procedure, n (%)
PCI 15 465 (24.1%) 1447 (15%) 2205 (18.9%) 3248 (23.7%) 3878 (27%) 4687 (31.9%)  < 0.0001
CABG 3653 (5.7%) 828 (8.6%) 782 (6.7%) 745 (5.4%) 707 (4.9%) 591 (4%)  < 0.0001
Heart transplantation 183 (0.3%) 20 (0.2%) 29 (0.2%) 47 (0.3%) 44 (0.3%) 43 (0.3%) 0.0921
Vasoactive agents, n (%)
Dopamine 48 155 (75.2%) 7668 (79.4%) 9289 (79.5%) 10,751 (78.6%) 10,563 (73.7%) 9884 (67.3%)  < 0.0001
Norepinephrine 24 817 (38.7%) 2563 (26.5%) 3929 (33.6%) 5096 (37.2%) 6220 (43.4%) 7009 (47.7%)  < 0.0001
Dobutamine 12 123 (18.9%) 2720 (28.2%) 2665 (22.8%) 2592 (18.9%) 2230 (15.5%) 1916 (13%)  < 0.0001
Epinephrine 34 806 (54.3%) 5815 (60.2%) 6703 (57.4%) 7724 (56.4%) 7500 (52.3%) 7064 (48.1%)  < 0.0001
Mechanical support, n (%)
IABP 13 782 (21.5%) 1835 (19%) 2413 (20.7%) 3172 (23.2%) 3003 (20.9%) 3359 (22.9%)  < 0.0001
ECMO 5915 (9.2%) 993 (10.3%) 1202 (10.3%) 1103 (8.1%) 1247 (8.7%) 1370 (9.3%)  < 0.0001
VAD 140 (0.2%) 0 0 15 (0.1%) 58 (0.4%) 67 (0.5%)  < 0.0001
  1. CS, cardiogenic shock; STEMI, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; IABP, intra-aortic balloon pump; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; VAD, ventricular assist device