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Table 2 LDCA and other factors associated with risk of 90-day mortality in ACLF patients

From: Association between longer duration of citrate accumulation and 90-day mortality of acute-on-chronic liver failure

  Crude HR (95% CI) Adjusted HR (95% CI)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
LDCA
 No 1 1 1 1 1
 Yes 2.62 (1.79–3.84)*** 1.07 (0.66–1.73) 1.49 (0.95–2.36) 1.41 (0.90–2.22) 1.05 (0.65–1.72)
Age (years) 1.03 (1.01–1.05)*** 0.99 (0.97–1.02) 0.97 (0.94–0.99)** 1.02 (1.00–1.04) 1.01 (0.99–1.03)
Gender
 Male 1 1 1 1 1
 Female 1.84 (1.15–2.94)* 1.24 (0.73–2.08) 1.04 (0.62–1.76) 1.25 (0.74–2.09) 1.81 (1.07–3.08)*
Liver cirrhosis
 No 1 1 1 1 1
 Yes 2.51 (1.37–4.57)** 1.66 (0.90–3.08) 2.14 (1.17–3.95)* 2.20 (1.19–4.06)* 1.97 (1.07–3.65)*
HBV DNA (log10 IU/mL) 0.98 (0.89–1.09) 1.02 (0.92–1.13) 1.00 (0.90–1.12) 1.00 (0.90–1.12) 1.01 (0.90–1.13)
Etiology
 HBV infection only 1 1 1 1 1
 HBV infection plus other causes 0.93 (0.60–1.45) 1.07 (0.68–1.69) 1.07 (0.68–1.68) 1.06 (0.67–1.67) 0.82 (0.51–1.29)
Comorbidity
 No 1 1 1 1 1
 Yes 1.86 (1.20–2.90)** 1.74 (1.05–2.87)* 1.56 (0.96–2.55) 1.60 (0.98–2.61) 1.75 (1.06–2.90)*
Disease severity
 COSSH ACLFscore 2.78 (2.31–3.34)*** 2.72 (2.17–3.40)***
 CLIF-C ACLF score 1.13 (1.09–1.16)*** 1.15 (1.10–1.19)***
 AARCACLF score 1.60 (1.41–1.82)*** 1.59 (1.38–1.83)***
 MELD score 1.16 (1.12–1.20)*** 1.17 (1.12–1.22)***
  1. HBV infection plus other causes: the ones having HBV infection plus any one of other co-existing liver diseases was classified to this subgroup
  2. Comorbidity: the ones having any one of comorbidities were classified as the comorbidity group
  3. Adjusted HR: multivariable Cox regression analysis includes LDCA (yes vs no), age (continuous years), gender (female vs male), liver cirrhosis (yes vs no), HBV DNA (continuouslog10 IU/mL), other co-existing liver diseases (viral infections other than hepatitis B virus, alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver, immune related liver disease, drug induced liver injury, and other liver diseases), comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, primary hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and other chronic diseases), and disease severity (model 1, COSSH ACLF score; model 2, CLIF-C ACLF score; model 3, AARC ACLF score; model 4, MELD score)
  4. ACLF, Acute-on-chronic liver failure; LDCA, longer duration of citrate accumulation; HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; COSSH, Chinese Group on the Study of Severe Hepatitis B; CLIF-C, European Association for the Study of the Liver—Chronic Liver Failure-Consortium; AARC, APASL ACLF Research Consortium; APASL, Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver; MELD, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease
  5. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05