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Table 2 Main characteristics of severe COVID-19 patients classified according to respiratory support at inclusion

From: Peripheral microcirculatory alterations are associated with the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome in COVID-19 patients admitted to intermediate respiratory and intensive care units

  Invasive mechanical ventilation
(n = 39)
Non-invasive respiratory support
(n = 34)
Age (years) 59 ± 12 59 ± 14
Gender (male), n (%) 28 (72) 23 (68)
BMI 30 ± 5 30 ± 6
Days from hospitalization (n) 5 ± 4 5 ± 4
Days from IRCU/ICU admission (n) 4 ± 3 3 ± 3
Pre-existing comorbidities (n, %)   
Hypertension 18 (46) 15 (44)
Diabetes mellitus 8 (21) 9 (26)
Smoker 7 (18) 11 (32)
COPD 2 (5) 5 (15)
Respiratory support (n, %)   
Mechanical ventilation 39 (100%)
HFNC 23 (68%)
NIV 3 (9%)
Venturi mask 8 (23%)
Sedative agents (n, %) 39 (100) 0
NMBA (n, %) 17 (44) 0
Vasopressor support (n, %) 12 (29) 0
Temperature (°C) 36.2 ± 0.9 36.3 ± 0.5
HR (beats/min) 74 ± 15 82 ± 16*
MAP (mmHg) 83 ± 10 89 ± 13*
RR (resp/min) 22 ± 4 21 ± 6
FiO2 (%) 53 ± 21 56 ± 20
PaO2 (mmHg) 82 ± 14
PaCO2 (mmHg) 45 ± 8
pH 7.38 ± 0.07
SpO2 (%) 96 ± 2 93 ± 5*
PF ratio 174 ± 54
SF ratio 204 ± 64 200 ± 98
Hb (g/dL) 12.4 ± 2.0 13.7 ± 1.8*
D-Dimer (ng/mL) 5528 ± 8833 7499 ± 20,109
Ferritin (ng/mL) 1786 ± 918 1201 ± 993*
StO2 (%) 67 ± 6 67 ± 6
THC (μM/L) 41 ± 13 44 ± 18
DeO2 (%/min)  − 4.9 ± 1.8  − 5.6 ± 2.1
ReO2 (%/min) 72 ± 36 83 ± 38
Hyperemia AUC (U) 8.2 ± 5.2 8.8 ± 4.8
  1. BMI, body mass index; IRCU, Intermediate Respiratory Care Unit; ICU, Intensive Care Unit; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HFNC, high-flow nasal cannula; NIV, non-invasive ventilation; NMBA, neuromuscular blocking agents; HR, heart rate; MAP, mean arterial pressure; RR, respiratory rate; FiO2, fraction of inspired oxygen; PaO2, arterial partial pressure of oxygen; PaCO2, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide; SpO2, pulse-oximetric oxygen saturation; PF ratio, PaO2 to FiO2 ratio; SF ratio, SpO2 to FiO2 ratio; Hb, hemoglobin; StO2, tissue oxygen saturation; THC, tissue hemoglobin concentration; DeO2, deoxygenation rate; ReO2, reoxygenation rate; AUC, area under the curve
  2. *p < 0.05