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Table 3 Themes and subthemes on perspectives on restricted visitation policies during the COVID-19 pandemic from patients, family members, and healthcare professionals

From: Restricted visitation policies in acute care settings during the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review

Perspectivesa Patients Family members Healthcare professionals
N = 26 N = 13 N = 139
Overwhelming grief 8 (30.8%) 5 (38.5%) 62 (44.6%)
Absent 1 (12.5%) 1 (20.0%) 7 (11.3%)
Anticipatory 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (4.8%)
Common 1 (12.5%) 1 (20.0%) 5 (8.1%)
Complicated 3 (37.5%) 3 (60.0%)b 34 (54.8%)b
Delayed 3 (37.5%) 1 (20.0%) 5 (8.1%)
Disenfranchised 4 (50.0%)b 3 (60.0%)b 16 (25.8%)
Exaggerated 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 8 (12.9%)
Inhibited 2 (25.0%) 0 (0.0%) 6 (9.7%)
Process of grieving 4 (50.0%)b 1 (20.0%) 12 (19.4%)
State of well-being 13 (50.0%) 5 (38.5%) 83 (59.7%)
Anxiety 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 9 (10.8%)
Burden 2 (15.4%) 1 (20.0%) 19 (22.9%)
Burnout 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 6 (7.2%)
Depression 1 (7.7%) 1 (20.0%) 6 (7.2%)
Distress 6 (46.2%)b 5 (100.0%)b 23 (27.7%)b
Emotional well-being 2 (15.4%) 1 (20.0%) 15 (18.1%)
Mental health disorders 2 (15.4%) 0 (0.0%) 17 (20.5%)
Posttraumatic stress disorder 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (3.6%)
Professional support 4 (30.8%) 2 (40.0%)b 23 (27.7%)b
Psychosocial isolation 1 (7.7%) 0 (0.0%) 9 (10.8%)
Stress 0 (0.0%) 1 (20.0%) 5 (6.0%)
Trauma 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 5 (6.0%)
Touch and physical presence 7 (26.9%) 5 (38.5%) 29 (20.9%)
Eye contact 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 4 (13.8%)
Humanization 1 (14.3%) 2 (40.0%) 10 (34.5%)
Personal protective equipment 3 (42.9%) 3 (60.0%) 19 (65.5%)b
Physical presence 4 (57.1%)b 5 (100%)b 15 (51.7%)
Physical touch 2 (28.6%) 1 (20.0%) 8 (27.6%)
Coping and accessing support 12 (46.2%) 7 (53.9%) 88 (63.3%)
Abandonment and inattention 4 (33.3%) 3 (42.9%) 12 (13.6%)
Availability for support 5 (41.7%)b 2 (28.6%) 32 (36.3%)
Education and training 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 8 (9.1%)
Emotion-focused 1 (8.3%) 1 (14.3%) 10 (11.4%)
Problem-focused 3 (25.0%) 2 (28.6%) 17 (19.3%)
Process of coping 2 (16.7%) 2 (28.6%) 38 (43.2%)b
Connection and communication 13 (50.0%) 8 (61.5%) 86 (61.9%)
Access and limitations 1 (7.7%) 0 (0.0%) 36 (41.9%)b
Compassion delivery 3 (23.1%) 1 (12.5%) 28 (32.6%)
Consistency and clarity 6 (46.2%)b 6 (75.0%)b 33 (38.4%)
e-Health/telehealth 6 (46.2%)b 6 (75.0%)b 36 (41.9%)b
Education and training 2 (15.4%) 1 (12.5%) 15 (17.4%)
Non-verbal cues 1 (7.7%) 0 (0.0%) 4 (4.7%)
  1. Percentages do not add up to 100 due to the possibility of multiple outcomes per record
  2. aPerspectives determined from inductive thematic analysis of included records
  3. bPerspectives that were predominantly reported